Фундаментальные исследования пространственной экономики. Рубрика в журнале - Региональная экономика. Юг России

Публикации в рубрике (162): Фундаментальные исследования пространственной экономики
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Comparative analysis of the energy efficiency of modern environmentally friendly computers

Comparative analysis of the energy efficiency of modern environmentally friendly computers

Barta Va Klrn, Szalay Zsigmond Gbor, Kovcs Rpd Endre

Статья научная

As a result of technological advances, the performance of computers is growing continuously, while at the same time, their energy consumption is growing, too. Computer development needs to focus increasingly on finding energy efficient solutions to keep the operation of supercomputer centers on a sustainable level. As a result, green computing is getting more and more important in the world of supercomputers as well. Our paper examines the technical data of supercomputers (HPC) - with a focus on performance and energy consumption - on TOP500 and Green500 lists released over the past 10 years. The computing capacity of the machines on the TOP500 list of the most powerful computers is growing exponentially. Until 2017 the rate of growth of the energy efficiency indicator was slower than that of the computing capacity, therefore the total energy consumption of the machines on the TOP500 list was continuously increasing. This trend seems to have changed; in the period from November 2016 to June 2017 the growth rate of the energy efficiency of supercomputers exceeded the increase in their computing capacity...

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Correlations between attitude to money and demographic variables on a sample of university students

Correlations between attitude to money and demographic variables on a sample of university students

Mihly Niko Lett, Kovcs Va Ildik, Madarsz Imre, Mszros Aranka

Статья научная

Despite the fact that money plays a central role in our lives, few empirical researches are directed at examining what factors can shape our attitude to money. It especially holds true for Hungary where such examinations are almost entirely missing. According to international research results certain demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, income etc.) and attitude to money show typical tendencies. Our paper summarises the most important results on the topic published so far and by using Yamauchi and Templer’s Money Attitude Scale (MAS) university students were asked ( n = 305) about their attitude to money. The results, in line with previous international analyses, show the correlation between attitude to money and certain demographic characteristics. For men money would rather mean the source of power and prestige while women are more money-consious looking for special offers and sales. Regarding age, the anxiety over money is the strongest for those over 35 when compared with other generations...

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Crossbreed cattle: assessment and challenges of breeding in selected districts of Tigray and Afar regional states, Ethiopia

Crossbreed cattle: assessment and challenges of breeding in selected districts of Tigray and Afar regional states, Ethiopia

Nagy Henrietta, Abdulkadr Ahmed Abduletif, Neszmlyi Gyrgy Ivn

Статья научная

The practice of animal husbandry has played an important role in enhancing sustainable development and improving food security of the community. However, the contribution of this sector towards the national as well as regional economy is verysmall. The focus of this research is to identify the main reasons why rural farmers do not own rear crossbreed cattle. The data obtained reveals that the majority of the rural communities dont have the right knowledge about the importance of crossbreed cattle in terms of their high yield. Some of the rural residents who are aware said they have limited financial access to afford crossbreed cattle. Besides, the respondents replied that the lack of appropriate feed and its high consumption is another reason, although the output gained from crossbreed cattle is quite high compared to the indigenous animals. Therefore, with the available livestock resource in Ethiopia it is recommended to increase the awareness of importance of crossbreed cattle, and government should also focus on creating favorable conditions to access to financial resources and feed for cattle. Solving the main bottlenecks will assure sustainable development and enable to meet the growing demand of the region. In addition to this, the income disparities between farmers and other self and government employed resident can be minimized.

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Decarbonization of the economy - the general trend of development of Russia and its regions in the 21st century

Decarbonization of the economy - the general trend of development of Russia and its regions in the 21st century

Mitrofanova Inna V.

Статья научная

Today the issue of Russia’s low-carbon development and the necessity in cutting down Greenhouse emissions, first of all, carbon dioxide (СO2) is very acute. Over the recent years a lot of documents and regulatory legal acts have appeared in Russia, one way or another related to the decarbonization of the economy, including “National Climate Change Adaptation Plan”, the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation “On Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions”, “Strategy for the Long-Term Development of Russia with Low Greenhouse Gas Emissions up to 2050”, draft Federal Law “On State Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Removals”, “The Plan for the Development of Hydrogen Energy in Russia up to 2050”. Russia needs a network of carbon landfills, its own non-discriminatory system for measuring the balance of greenhouse gases, this is the most important factor of national security today. In the near future, the system of calculations will be worked out on the territory of seven regions: the Chechen Republic, the Krasnodar Krai, Kaliningrad, Sakhalin, Sverdlovsk, Novosibirsk and Tyumen Regions. Since 2020, a pilot project of a carbon landfill has been implemented in Kaluga Region, on lands located within the borders of the Ugra National Park. To finance these projects, it is necessary to attract funds from national projects, first of all, the NP “Clean Air”. Carbon farms are a complex of technologies that enable the absorption of greenhouse gases, and so far for Russia it is mainly forest rather than agricultural technologies. There are about 11 million square kilometers of forests in Russia, and this is a unique reservoir for absorbing CO , so the 21st century is the century of Russia, which has every chance to become the most important player in the sequestration industry. It is fundamentally important for Russia to become a world leader and gain a high rate of carbon farms development throughout the country. However, there is an acute shortage of qualified personnel for this type of activity in the country, so one of the strategic tasks for Russian universities today is to train specialists for the new sequestration industry in the conditions of a new and inevitable reality - total decarbonization of the economy.

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Demographic and socio-psychological effects in judging the minimal and ideal standard of living

Demographic and socio-psychological effects in judging the minimal and ideal standard of living

Mihly Nikolett, Komromi Nndor, Bruder Emese

Статья научная

The EU carried out research on 26 member states in which comparative indicators on the standard of living were created [16]. This qualitative research served as the basis of our paper as it was suggested that the social and economic situation of the respondents had had a significant impact on the issue of what “minimally acceptable” and “affordable” is by a nation in terms of certain goods and services. Accordingly, the consumer baskets created this way do not necessarily reflect what the required and inevitable minimum standard of living in the given society is (one of the objectives of the research was to define this). As a matter of fact, setting and achieving the desirable, minimal or satisfactory standard of living depend on a lot of factors. In our opinion demographical characteristics are important but the individual’s personality traits, psychological impacts and socio-cultural background are also as important as they are. Our paper reviews the research results on the topic and presents empirical research carried out with women...

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Different approaches for regional analyses

Different approaches for regional analyses

Topa Zoltan, Czabadai Lilla, Aldorfai Gyorgy

Статья научная

It can be observed that many academic papers dealing with regional analysis show some basic and key similarities with each other. This does not mean that they would be too identical or repetitive; on the contrary, their most important similarities are their differences to each other. For instance, there can be various types of theoretical and methodological approaches, different types of datasets compared and analysed, and unique regional characteristics. Analysing investigation methods is an important research field, because it is a difficult task to find appropriate methodologies which can be supported by theoretical concepts. This paper attempts to demonstrate two examples for measuring problematics: one about transport infrastructure and accessibility, the other is about defining beneficiary regions in Hungary. The reason these two topics were chosen is that the measurability of the impact of transport infrastructure and regional development levels are still debated even these days; therefore, there is a need for more and more new attempts to analyse the two subjects. During the presentation of these examples some segments of the theoretical background will be demonstrated along with practical examples and questions. Finally, the paper summarises the importance of proper regional analytic methods.

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Economic role of tourist cooperation in Hungary

Economic role of tourist cooperation in Hungary

Ritter Krisztin, Virg Gnes

Статья научная

Modern tourism was developed owing to the economic, social and technological changes in the XX century. The establishment of sustainable and competitive tourism is a trend that can be observed worldwide. Therefore, in countries interested in tourism, such as Hungary, it has become an important development direction to establish an institutional structure based on tourism destination management (TDM). Over the past decade developing organizations did not affect only our country’s most advanced touristic areas (eg.: Heviz, Lake Balaton, Siofok, Hajdúszoboszló, Buk), but also an increasing number of destination organizations were set up in rural areas dealing with a variety of economic and social problems. Along this the question could be raised about what the role of these associations were / is, and how efficiently could / do they operate.The questions are whether this institutionalized cooperation can work effectively in our country; what effects do they have in the life of a region; and if these effects can be measured, which indicators are the most suitable ones to do so?

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Efficiency of Hungarian regions in using the development funds for touristy purposes

Efficiency of Hungarian regions in using the development funds for touristy purposes

Kаposzta jО., Nagy А., Nagy Н.

Статья научная

Tourism is one of the highest income-generating sectors which has influence on other economic and social processes as well. With the increase in the solvent demand, it can contribute to the creation of sustainable touristic service. In the last programming period, there was EUR 5 billion available for developing the agriculture, rural environment and the rural areas in Hungary. It facilitates the changes of the economic structure, started already, and slows down the break-off of the rural areas to be able to start the economic and social catch up. Funds available for the touristic services can improve the competitiveness of the regions, in case they are used efficiently. Such funds are available from various sources. One of our objectives in this research was to examine these funds and the concrete development directions in details and to investigate what their spatial distribution is in the country, seeing whether these funds show any concentration in Hungary.

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Essence of the notion “economic space”: political and economical aspect

Essence of the notion “economic space”: political and economical aspect

Mitrofanova Inna Vasilyevna, Tlisov Azamat Borisovich, Mitrofanova Inna Alekseevna, Shavtikova Lilianna Magomedovna

Статья научная

Methodological substantiation as well as methodical and instrumental basing of an efficient management of complicated spatial and economic systems is impeded by an insufficiently precise content that is meant by the term “economic space” within the frame of the contemporary economic theory. The article investigates the dichotomy of the geographic and economic space, the multifold nature of the latter is displayed using the system of the basic indicators. In article it is emphasized that such concepts as “spatial” (territorial) structure of economy, “the spatial (territorial) organization of economy” are close, but aren't identical to the concept “economic space”. They are understood as a natural order, the device and already then - as activities for the organization and streamlining of economic space. And in each timepoint the economic space appears as fixing of proportions and scales of various objects. Authors tried to resolve a problem of a dichotomy of geographical and economic space, proving that economic space it isn't simple the certain territory located in concrete geographical coordinates it represents much more difficult phenomenon appearing in the form of unity of speculative and real space, interning along with geographical, historical, demographic, cultural, religious components which in total and define the contents economic components...

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Farm development in Tay Nguyen economic region: specificity of formation and development

Farm development in Tay Nguyen economic region: specificity of formation and development

Nguyen Thi Ngoc Loi, Mitrofanova Inna V.

Статья научная

The development level of businesses and their competitiveness has a significant effect on the growth of an economic region. The improvement in comparative advantage for regional social and economic development will contribute to the strengthening and expanding possibilities for farm owners as well as to encouraging the authorities of the province to pay a special attention to an accelerated farm transformation in the agriculture of Tay Nguyen region. Farm economy development is considered to be an inevitable trend and its effectiveness does not rely too much on laws and market practice but on the understanding of the regional structure taking into account the demands and peculiarities of this economic agent. Using the methods of descriptive statistics and the analysis of secondary data, this paper is devoted to the analysis of the essence of farm economy of Tay Nguyen region. A special place has analysis of the theoretical basis of economic zones and the identification of comparative advantages of the region in farming development. The results of this empirical research aim to discover the specificity of formation and development of farm economy in the Tay Nguyen region nowadays.

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Improvement of institutional provision of development and implementation of regional cluster policy

Improvement of institutional provision of development and implementation of regional cluster policy

Sheykin Dmitriy Alekseevich

Статья научная

The author believes that from the point of view of the institutional approach the regional cluster policy is a significant factor of the overcoming of the effect of the “path dependence” in the cluster formation of the regional economy in the whole. The engendering and development of regional clusters depend on many factors which develop evolutionary including the maneuver contributing to the success of the cluster initiative. The article proves that the most typical challenges for the regions in the cluster creation process in the Russian Federation in the institutional sphere are: domination of a formal logic of the exogenous model in the regional clusters’ formation; disregard of the role of informal clusters and protocluster nets; poor consideration of the importance of intercluster interaction and external stakeholders; insufficient attention of cluster managers to the institutional development and marketing of the cluster identity. The author emphasizes that the transfer to a new model of regional cluster policy which is observed in the leading regions of the world is connected with the rejection of a mono industrial and a mono technological approach and is determined by a transfer to inter industrial cooperation of cluster participants, technological convergence principle (integration of various technological regions) and platform self organization (open multicultural interaction within a common subject of the cluster initiative)...

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Knowledge transfer for economic development: online farmer training in Vojvodina

Knowledge transfer for economic development: online farmer training in Vojvodina

Blint Juhsz, Lengyel Lszl

Статья научная

During the five-year period of theVojvodina Economic Development Program implementation, €350 million has been invested in the target area. The aim of the present research is to review the process and achievements of farmer training and to introduce a model of successful knowledge transfer. The success of online farmer training was analyzed using statistical methods. Ageneral model introducing a concrete practice example was developed using structural analysis and modeling. As a result of the research, we point out that improving the level of knowledge of farmers through training is a key issue in the operation of successful integration systems, in the production of crops of the right qualityand quantity. Due to the fact that the design was made to be user-friendly, and requires a low-level technical equipment and IT skills, the knowledge base is equally accessible to farmers regardless of age, education and place of residence. The program expands the level of knowledge and digital competencies of the farmers, and provides useful information for further developments. The flowchart presented in the article is a suitable tool to increase the efficiencyof the training todayand can serve as a reference for other institutions engaged in similar activities.

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Nigeria at the cross-roads - can the “giant of Africa” overcome her social, political and economic challenges?

Nigeria at the cross-roads - can the “giant of Africa” overcome her social, political and economic challenges?

Neszmlyi Gyrgy I.

Статья научная

The paper, beyond a comprehensive geographical, social and economic introduction of the most populous country of Africa, attempts to provide an insight to those challenges and problems which Nigeria faces nowadays. Beyond the rapid growth of the population, another main factor is the exploitation and export of crude oil which has been providing Nigeria with “easy cash” for the recent few decades. Another point is that agricultural holdings are small and scattered, and farming is carried out with simple tools and techniques. Modern and large-scale farms are not common as well as the manufacturing industry is also lagging. The political leadership and the economic decision makers of the country have already recognized the necessity of re-structuring the economy, the development of the food and agricultural sector and the manufacturing industry. All these are of key importance in order to stop frictions and tensions among the various ethnic and religious groups of the Nigerians and further develop their peaceful and long-run co-existence in the country. The study also talks about the desired ways and those measures which the former or incumbent Nigerian leadership has already made in order to find appropriate answers to the challenges. A brief overview from theEuropean point of view makes the analysis, which was prepared on the basis of mainly secondary and partially primary research, complete.

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Regional distribution of adult education in Hungary (2010, 2019)

Regional distribution of adult education in Hungary (2010, 2019)

Dávid Hajdú

Статья научная

This article presents the results of a study related to the regional distribution of participants in adult education programs in Hungary. Adult education is one of the cornerstones of lifelong learning supported by the European Union. The author performed a secondary database analysis from the OSAP 1665 (National Statistical Data Collection Program on Adult Education) database operated by the Pest County Government Office. To answer the main research questions, the author used the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Local Moran I Autocorrelation and Hot Spot analysis methods used in regional statistics. Access to education in rural areas is one of the components of reducing unfavorable demographic changes and emigration caused by unemployment. The purpose of the study is to draw attention to the lack of access to education for people living in rural areas and to the fact that education is the first step in keeping the rural population in place. During the study period (2010 and 2019), training centers covered more than 50 percent of the country’s municipalities. Training centers are located along the main roads of the country. A study of the service areas of the district centers revealed which districts lacked such centers. With the help of the research methods, the author obtained data indicating that the training achievements of rural areas are weak, and this may lead to their further backlog. In the southern part of Western Hungary, due to the peculiarities of the economic and settlement structure, area with no training centers was formed. Over time, the problems will also appear in other social and economic indicators, which may require the organization of major catch-up programs

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Role of the retail sector in Taiwanese economy

Role of the retail sector in Taiwanese economy

Kozk Tams, Kirly Va, Nagy Henrietta, Neszmlyi Gyrgy Ivn

Статья научная

The government-guided establishment and incubation of the retail sector in Taiwan has achieved striking success and generated high consumption. This success was even more striking because when the increase of consumption began, the country had not enough retail shopping centers and it was to accept some foreign retail investments. Originally there were no Taiwanese retail firms with deep technological roots and managerial skills. Yet government decision-makers recognized the challenges of upgrading the nation’s economy basing and formulating a strategy that entailed the creation of high-level economic growth which serve as vehicles to stimulate the consumption. Beyond a comprehensive review on Taiwan’s retail sector, the main objective is to analyse the role and the influence of the sector in the Taiwanese macro- economy. The first issue is getting a picture in Asia (special in Asia - Pacific region) of retail trends. To examine this issue, the authors have done some comparisons between Asia and Europe and apart from the obvious similarities, number of significant differences have been found. The research objective is to provide an effective introduction to the business context of consumption in Taiwan.

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Spatial research of the labour reserve in the winery center of the Danube wine region (2014-2019)

Spatial research of the labour reserve in the winery center of the Danube wine region (2014-2019)

Jrdny Krisztin, Gyri Tmea

Статья научная

In Hungary, the positive impact of the wine sector on rural areas has encouraged Hungarian and EU policy makers to provide significant development support to wineries. One of the main objectives of the support was to increase employment in rural areas. In the period 2014-2019, nearly €60 million was awarded to support the development of wine businesses in Hungary. The aim of our research is to examine how labour supply in the Danube wine region, Hungary’s largest wine region, has changed over the period covered by the wine sector development aid. We analysed the spatial distribution and concentration of several groups of potential labour supply in the study area. The Dual-index and the Hoover-index were used to measure spatial disparities. To measure the spatial concentration of jobseekers, we calculated the location quotient and then examined the spatial pattern of the resulting municipality-level concentration values using the Local Moran I statistic, a local test function of spatial autocorrelation. As a result of our research, we identified the spatial specificities of the potential labour pool available in the study area. The results are useful for business decision-makers planning to expand or reorganise their human resources. In addition, knowledge of the characteristics of the available potential workforce will support the definition of future development directions, in particular with regard to human resource expansion.

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Specificity of socio-economic processes in the Hungarian microregion

Specificity of socio-economic processes in the Hungarian microregion

Krsz Katalin

Статья научная

The Kunhegyesi District is the most disadvantaged district in the Northern Great Plain Region of Hungary. The aim of this study, which serves as a basis for a social comparative analysis of the District’s settlements in the future, is to understand the demographic processes. Population in the District has been steadily decreasing since 2011 besides lower income levels, poorer health indicators and a higher proportion of premature mortality. Two out of three children are disadvantaged, while the vast majorityof young people drops out of secondaryschool without any qualification. The higher-than-average proportion of Roma population alone does not explain worsening economic output, economic performance has nothing to do with ethnic origin. Reasons are rather to be found in the deterioration of social mobility of the past two decades. Similarly to areas with a higher proportion of Roma population, the District also undergoes an exodus of non- Roma, resulting in ghettoization, thereby further diminishing chances of social mobility. Thanks to social inclusion and recovery programs, as well as the commitment of local Roma stakeholders, promising changes are coming true with an increase in qualification and employment levels and a decrease in the number of disadvantaged children, question is whether development is sustainable in the long run, and also, whether the District has a potential to independently self- sustain social development.

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Strategic importance and prospects of development institutes in the Russian economy

Strategic importance and prospects of development institutes in the Russian economy

Pozhilova Irina Vladimirovna

Статья научная

The article studies the modern directions and the approaches in the analysis of the development institutes. The importance of the specification of the role of the development institutes and the growth of their efficiency is determined by new strategic priorities of social, economic and regional development in the Russian economy. The assessment of the functions and the activity of the existing development institutes is expected to be carried out from the point of view of spatial development, social and economic leveling, decentralization of management. In the paper the notion of the development institutes in the context of contemporary research is specified. Their strategic importance in the economic, industrial and regional development is emphasized. Within the goal of research the main problems of the functioning development institutes the directions of their modernization and improvement are defined. The measures and mechanisms of regional policy implementation on the basis of the development institutes activity in the Russian agriculture are analyzed...

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The global competitiveness index of Central East European countries and its changes in the period between 2006 and 2014

The global competitiveness index of Central East European countries and its changes in the period between 2006 and 2014

Lks Lszl, Szira Zoltn, Othman Ghazala, Tth-Lks Klra

Статья научная

The fact according to which the small open market economics with developed public administration are capable of rapid growth has proved to be true in the third millennium, as well. It especially holds true for Singapore, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Ireland and Denmark which also have a prestigious position in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) of the World Economic Forum (WEF).The countries of Central and Central East Europe more or less similar to them could be characterised by an improving economic position following their change of the regime and a painful transitory period. This process was closely linked to the integration process of the Central European countries to the EU. At that point the international analyses examining the development of the countries in transition judged Hungary’s competitiveness situation to be the best (ranking 27th place due to the radical economic reforms carried out previously according to the analysts)...

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The impact of corporate embeddedness of transnational companies on local economic development: case studies from Hungary

The impact of corporate embeddedness of transnational companies on local economic development: case studies from Hungary

Jzsa Viktria, Kposzta Jzsef, Nagy Henrietta

Статья научная

Reindustrialisation and the European Industrial Renaissance are strategic priorities of the current EU programming period (2014-2020). In parallel with the declining significance of national economies, meso (local) level is becoming more and more powerful. Key actors of reindustrialisation are transnational companies (TNCs) and their locations, the specific settlements. Transnational companies are influential allies of local and regional communities from several aspects, such as society, economy, science, governance, natural and built environment. The scientific approach is based on the basic concepts of evolutionary economic geography and recent innovation models. Research papers generally focus on one or two aspects of embeddedness, for example innovation, social or institutional embeddedness. The current paper examines embeddedness from a complex, multidimensional perspective that has not yet been applied in this context. It presents a new model of the embedment process and a framework of corporate embeddedness based on case studies...

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