Статьи журнала - Региональная экономика. Юг России

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"Белые пятна" стратегии пространственного развития России: обсуждение проекта

"Белые пятна" стратегии пространственного развития России: обсуждение проекта

Митрофанова Инна Васильевна, Селютин Виктор Владимирович, Иванов Николай Прокофьевич

Статья научная

На необходимость разработки долгосрочной модели хозяйственно-гуманитарного освоения территории России с учетом изменений ее места и роли в мировой экономике и геополитике после распада СССР указывалось еще в 90-е гг. учеными-регионалистами; федеральной властью такая потребность была озвучена после финансово-экономического кризиса 2008-2009 гг., вскрывшего ряд серьезных региональных диспропорций. Проект стратегии пространственного развития России до 2025 г. был разработан Министерством экономического развития РФ и обсуждался на протяжении второй половины 2018 года. По мнению авторов статьи, стратегия является доктринальным документом крайне высокого уровня обобщения, где много «белых пятен», в числе основных: перечислены проблемы пространственного развития РФ, но не названы причины их возникновения, нет объяснений, почему существуют инфраструктурные ограничения в социально-экономическом развитии территорий; не аргументированы критерии выделения 14 макрозон, игнорируются сложившиеся принципы районирования и общепринятые научные методы зонирования; никак не подкреплена соответствующими расчетами новация в виде деления специализации регионов на эффективную и неэффективную; игнорируются вопросы финансирования многочисленных затратных проектов (источники, объемы, механизмы); нет объективного представления о проектах развития инфраструктуры и др...

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"Города-стратеги" на современной карте России

"Города-стратеги" на современной карте России

Прибышин Тарас Кириллович, Жихаревич Борис Савельевич

Статья научная

Цель исследования - собрать и проанализировать полную базу текстов стратегий социальноэкономического развития российских городов с населением более 100 тыс. человек, утвержденных местными нормативно-правовыми актами в период с середины 2014 г. (то есть после принятия Федерального закона «О стратегическом планирования в Российской Федерации») по конец 2019 года. Задача нетривиальна, поскольку, несмотря на наличие в России публичного Федерального государственного реестра стратегических документов, он не содержит полной и точной информации о документах муниципального уровня. Изучаемый массив включал 168 городов. В ходе поиска изучены официальные сайты городских администраций и законодательных органов, а также иные открытые источники. Многие документы обнаружены на сайтах справочных правовых систем или в региональных базах стратегических документов. По итогам поиска в базу документов вошли 94 новые стратегии, принятые в 87 городах, что составляет 51,8 % от всех городов исследованной группы. Кроме того, 21 стратегия была актуализирована, таким образом только 60 городов из 168 не имели на конец 2019 г. актуальной (в смысле соответствия Федеральному закону) стратегии. Анализ территориального распределения городов, принявших стратегии после появления закона, показывает лидерство городов УФО, СФО и ДВФО по относительной активности в сфере стратегического планирования. По итогам изучения динамики утверждения стратегических документов предложена уточненная периодизация стратегического планирования на уровне городов: 1-й этап - с 1997 по 2006 г. («инновационное стратегирование»); 2-й этап - с 2007 по 2014 г. («массовое инициативное стратегирование»); 3-й этап - с 2014 по 2018 г. («законное стратегирование»).

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Agricultural engineering in the south of Russia: prospects for functioning in modern conditions

Agricultural engineering in the south of Russia: prospects for functioning in modern conditions

Mitrofanova Inna Vasilievna, Shkarupa Ekaterina Alexandrovna, Mitrofanova Inna Alekseevna, Batmanova Victoria Victorovna

Статья научная

Improvement of material base acts as one of the major elements promoting modernization of productions in agro-industrial complex (agrarian and industrial complex). However the solution of this strategic question is found not at the organizational level that in general deprives domestic agrarian and industrial complex of a basis of steady functioning against its active and menacing deindustrialization. Improvement of material base acts as one of the major elements promoting modernization of productions in agrarian and industrial complex. The article bases the necessity of the technical modernization in agriculture, reveals the risks of the functioning of the agricultural machinery enterprises in Russia. On the basis of the example of the "Rostselmash Company" (Southern Federal District) the problems are analyzed and the prospects of the development of this basic industry for the regions of the South of Russia within the frame of the realization of the requirements of the World Trade Organization, the member of which Russia became in 2012 are presented...

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Comparative analysis of the energy efficiency of modern environmentally friendly computers

Comparative analysis of the energy efficiency of modern environmentally friendly computers

Barta Va Klrn, Szalay Zsigmond Gbor, Kovcs Rpd Endre

Статья научная

As a result of technological advances, the performance of computers is growing continuously, while at the same time, their energy consumption is growing, too. Computer development needs to focus increasingly on finding energy efficient solutions to keep the operation of supercomputer centers on a sustainable level. As a result, green computing is getting more and more important in the world of supercomputers as well. Our paper examines the technical data of supercomputers (HPC) - with a focus on performance and energy consumption - on TOP500 and Green500 lists released over the past 10 years. The computing capacity of the machines on the TOP500 list of the most powerful computers is growing exponentially. Until 2017 the rate of growth of the energy efficiency indicator was slower than that of the computing capacity, therefore the total energy consumption of the machines on the TOP500 list was continuously increasing. This trend seems to have changed; in the period from November 2016 to June 2017 the growth rate of the energy efficiency of supercomputers exceeded the increase in their computing capacity...

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Correlations between attitude to money and demographic variables on a sample of university students

Correlations between attitude to money and demographic variables on a sample of university students

Mihly Niko Lett, Kovcs Va Ildik, Madarsz Imre, Mszros Aranka

Статья научная

Despite the fact that money plays a central role in our lives, few empirical researches are directed at examining what factors can shape our attitude to money. It especially holds true for Hungary where such examinations are almost entirely missing. According to international research results certain demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, income etc.) and attitude to money show typical tendencies. Our paper summarises the most important results on the topic published so far and by using Yamauchi and Templer’s Money Attitude Scale (MAS) university students were asked ( n = 305) about their attitude to money. The results, in line with previous international analyses, show the correlation between attitude to money and certain demographic characteristics. For men money would rather mean the source of power and prestige while women are more money-consious looking for special offers and sales. Regarding age, the anxiety over money is the strongest for those over 35 when compared with other generations...

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Crossbreed cattle: assessment and challenges of breeding in selected districts of Tigray and Afar regional states, Ethiopia

Crossbreed cattle: assessment and challenges of breeding in selected districts of Tigray and Afar regional states, Ethiopia

Nagy Henrietta, Abdulkadr Ahmed Abduletif, Neszmlyi Gyrgy Ivn

Статья научная

The practice of animal husbandry has played an important role in enhancing sustainable development and improving food security of the community. However, the contribution of this sector towards the national as well as regional economy is verysmall. The focus of this research is to identify the main reasons why rural farmers do not own rear crossbreed cattle. The data obtained reveals that the majority of the rural communities dont have the right knowledge about the importance of crossbreed cattle in terms of their high yield. Some of the rural residents who are aware said they have limited financial access to afford crossbreed cattle. Besides, the respondents replied that the lack of appropriate feed and its high consumption is another reason, although the output gained from crossbreed cattle is quite high compared to the indigenous animals. Therefore, with the available livestock resource in Ethiopia it is recommended to increase the awareness of importance of crossbreed cattle, and government should also focus on creating favorable conditions to access to financial resources and feed for cattle. Solving the main bottlenecks will assure sustainable development and enable to meet the growing demand of the region. In addition to this, the income disparities between farmers and other self and government employed resident can be minimized.

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Demographic and socio-psychological effects in judging the minimal and ideal standard of living

Demographic and socio-psychological effects in judging the minimal and ideal standard of living

Mihly Nikolett, Komromi Nndor, Bruder Emese

Статья научная

The EU carried out research on 26 member states in which comparative indicators on the standard of living were created [16]. This qualitative research served as the basis of our paper as it was suggested that the social and economic situation of the respondents had had a significant impact on the issue of what “minimally acceptable” and “affordable” is by a nation in terms of certain goods and services. Accordingly, the consumer baskets created this way do not necessarily reflect what the required and inevitable minimum standard of living in the given society is (one of the objectives of the research was to define this). As a matter of fact, setting and achieving the desirable, minimal or satisfactory standard of living depend on a lot of factors. In our opinion demographical characteristics are important but the individual’s personality traits, psychological impacts and socio-cultural background are also as important as they are. Our paper reviews the research results on the topic and presents empirical research carried out with women...

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Different approaches for regional analyses

Different approaches for regional analyses

Topa Zoltan, Czabadai Lilla, Aldorfai Gyorgy

Статья научная

It can be observed that many academic papers dealing with regional analysis show some basic and key similarities with each other. This does not mean that they would be too identical or repetitive; on the contrary, their most important similarities are their differences to each other. For instance, there can be various types of theoretical and methodological approaches, different types of datasets compared and analysed, and unique regional characteristics. Analysing investigation methods is an important research field, because it is a difficult task to find appropriate methodologies which can be supported by theoretical concepts. This paper attempts to demonstrate two examples for measuring problematics: one about transport infrastructure and accessibility, the other is about defining beneficiary regions in Hungary. The reason these two topics were chosen is that the measurability of the impact of transport infrastructure and regional development levels are still debated even these days; therefore, there is a need for more and more new attempts to analyse the two subjects. During the presentation of these examples some segments of the theoretical background will be demonstrated along with practical examples and questions. Finally, the paper summarises the importance of proper regional analytic methods.

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Economic role of tourist cooperation in Hungary

Economic role of tourist cooperation in Hungary

Ritter Krisztin, Virg Gnes

Статья научная

Modern tourism was developed owing to the economic, social and technological changes in the XX century. The establishment of sustainable and competitive tourism is a trend that can be observed worldwide. Therefore, in countries interested in tourism, such as Hungary, it has become an important development direction to establish an institutional structure based on tourism destination management (TDM). Over the past decade developing organizations did not affect only our country’s most advanced touristic areas (eg.: Heviz, Lake Balaton, Siofok, Hajdúszoboszló, Buk), but also an increasing number of destination organizations were set up in rural areas dealing with a variety of economic and social problems. Along this the question could be raised about what the role of these associations were / is, and how efficiently could / do they operate.The questions are whether this institutionalized cooperation can work effectively in our country; what effects do they have in the life of a region; and if these effects can be measured, which indicators are the most suitable ones to do so?

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Efficiency of Hungarian regions in using the development funds for touristy purposes

Efficiency of Hungarian regions in using the development funds for touristy purposes

Kаposzta jО., Nagy А., Nagy Н.

Статья научная

Tourism is one of the highest income-generating sectors which has influence on other economic and social processes as well. With the increase in the solvent demand, it can contribute to the creation of sustainable touristic service. In the last programming period, there was EUR 5 billion available for developing the agriculture, rural environment and the rural areas in Hungary. It facilitates the changes of the economic structure, started already, and slows down the break-off of the rural areas to be able to start the economic and social catch up. Funds available for the touristic services can improve the competitiveness of the regions, in case they are used efficiently. Such funds are available from various sources. One of our objectives in this research was to examine these funds and the concrete development directions in details and to investigate what their spatial distribution is in the country, seeing whether these funds show any concentration in Hungary.

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Essence of the notion “economic space”: political and economical aspect

Essence of the notion “economic space”: political and economical aspect

Mitrofanova Inna Vasilyevna, Tlisov Azamat Borisovich, Mitrofanova Inna Alekseevna, Shavtikova Lilianna Magomedovna

Статья научная

Methodological substantiation as well as methodical and instrumental basing of an efficient management of complicated spatial and economic systems is impeded by an insufficiently precise content that is meant by the term “economic space” within the frame of the contemporary economic theory. The article investigates the dichotomy of the geographic and economic space, the multifold nature of the latter is displayed using the system of the basic indicators. In article it is emphasized that such concepts as “spatial” (territorial) structure of economy, “the spatial (territorial) organization of economy” are close, but aren't identical to the concept “economic space”. They are understood as a natural order, the device and already then - as activities for the organization and streamlining of economic space. And in each timepoint the economic space appears as fixing of proportions and scales of various objects. Authors tried to resolve a problem of a dichotomy of geographical and economic space, proving that economic space it isn't simple the certain territory located in concrete geographical coordinates it represents much more difficult phenomenon appearing in the form of unity of speculative and real space, interning along with geographical, historical, demographic, cultural, religious components which in total and define the contents economic components...

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Improvement of institutional provision of development and implementation of regional cluster policy

Improvement of institutional provision of development and implementation of regional cluster policy

Sheykin Dmitriy Alekseevich

Статья научная

The author believes that from the point of view of the institutional approach the regional cluster policy is a significant factor of the overcoming of the effect of the “path dependence” in the cluster formation of the regional economy in the whole. The engendering and development of regional clusters depend on many factors which develop evolutionary including the maneuver contributing to the success of the cluster initiative. The article proves that the most typical challenges for the regions in the cluster creation process in the Russian Federation in the institutional sphere are: domination of a formal logic of the exogenous model in the regional clusters’ formation; disregard of the role of informal clusters and protocluster nets; poor consideration of the importance of intercluster interaction and external stakeholders; insufficient attention of cluster managers to the institutional development and marketing of the cluster identity. The author emphasizes that the transfer to a new model of regional cluster policy which is observed in the leading regions of the world is connected with the rejection of a mono industrial and a mono technological approach and is determined by a transfer to inter industrial cooperation of cluster participants, technological convergence principle (integration of various technological regions) and platform self organization (open multicultural interaction within a common subject of the cluster initiative)...

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Nigeria at the cross-roads - can the “giant of Africa” overcome her social, political and economic challenges?

Nigeria at the cross-roads - can the “giant of Africa” overcome her social, political and economic challenges?

Neszmlyi Gyrgy I.

Статья научная

The paper, beyond a comprehensive geographical, social and economic introduction of the most populous country of Africa, attempts to provide an insight to those challenges and problems which Nigeria faces nowadays. Beyond the rapid growth of the population, another main factor is the exploitation and export of crude oil which has been providing Nigeria with “easy cash” for the recent few decades. Another point is that agricultural holdings are small and scattered, and farming is carried out with simple tools and techniques. Modern and large-scale farms are not common as well as the manufacturing industry is also lagging. The political leadership and the economic decision makers of the country have already recognized the necessity of re-structuring the economy, the development of the food and agricultural sector and the manufacturing industry. All these are of key importance in order to stop frictions and tensions among the various ethnic and religious groups of the Nigerians and further develop their peaceful and long-run co-existence in the country. The study also talks about the desired ways and those measures which the former or incumbent Nigerian leadership has already made in order to find appropriate answers to the challenges. A brief overview from theEuropean point of view makes the analysis, which was prepared on the basis of mainly secondary and partially primary research, complete.

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Regional distribution of adult education in Hungary (2010, 2019)

Regional distribution of adult education in Hungary (2010, 2019)

Dávid Hajdú

Статья научная

This article presents the results of a study related to the regional distribution of participants in adult education programs in Hungary. Adult education is one of the cornerstones of lifelong learning supported by the European Union. The author performed a secondary database analysis from the OSAP 1665 (National Statistical Data Collection Program on Adult Education) database operated by the Pest County Government Office. To answer the main research questions, the author used the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Local Moran I Autocorrelation and Hot Spot analysis methods used in regional statistics. Access to education in rural areas is one of the components of reducing unfavorable demographic changes and emigration caused by unemployment. The purpose of the study is to draw attention to the lack of access to education for people living in rural areas and to the fact that education is the first step in keeping the rural population in place. During the study period (2010 and 2019), training centers covered more than 50 percent of the country’s municipalities. Training centers are located along the main roads of the country. A study of the service areas of the district centers revealed which districts lacked such centers. With the help of the research methods, the author obtained data indicating that the training achievements of rural areas are weak, and this may lead to their further backlog. In the southern part of Western Hungary, due to the peculiarities of the economic and settlement structure, area with no training centers was formed. Over time, the problems will also appear in other social and economic indicators, which may require the organization of major catch-up programs

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Reindustrial transfromation of the economic complex of an old industrial region

Reindustrial transfromation of the economic complex of an old industrial region

Rodionova Ekaterina Vladimirovna

Статья научная

The fragmentary regional policy that was led in Russia in the 1990s of the XXth century had as its negative consequence the concentration of the main investment resources of the state by old industrial city forming industries. This fact later predetermined a contradictive structure of the industrial demand in the economy that constrained the innovative development of such regions. This fact “anchored” their technological underdevelopment. The author showed different approaches to the classification of old industrial regions of Russia. Their endogenous unevenness is prved. The common and specific features and attributes of these territories determined by the spatial localization are studied. The article underlines that the regional authorities of old industrial regions have as an economic basis an obsolete industry without offering other working places for people employed in it. The government very often has to postulate and implement its own quasi public industrial policy...

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Role of the retail sector in Taiwanese economy

Role of the retail sector in Taiwanese economy

Kozk Tams, Kirly Va, Nagy Henrietta, Neszmlyi Gyrgy Ivn

Статья научная

The government-guided establishment and incubation of the retail sector in Taiwan has achieved striking success and generated high consumption. This success was even more striking because when the increase of consumption began, the country had not enough retail shopping centers and it was to accept some foreign retail investments. Originally there were no Taiwanese retail firms with deep technological roots and managerial skills. Yet government decision-makers recognized the challenges of upgrading the nation’s economy basing and formulating a strategy that entailed the creation of high-level economic growth which serve as vehicles to stimulate the consumption. Beyond a comprehensive review on Taiwan’s retail sector, the main objective is to analyse the role and the influence of the sector in the Taiwanese macro- economy. The first issue is getting a picture in Asia (special in Asia - Pacific region) of retail trends. To examine this issue, the authors have done some comparisons between Asia and Europe and apart from the obvious similarities, number of significant differences have been found. The research objective is to provide an effective introduction to the business context of consumption in Taiwan.

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Strategic importance and prospects of development institutes in the Russian economy

Strategic importance and prospects of development institutes in the Russian economy

Pozhilova Irina Vladimirovna

Статья научная

The article studies the modern directions and the approaches in the analysis of the development institutes. The importance of the specification of the role of the development institutes and the growth of their efficiency is determined by new strategic priorities of social, economic and regional development in the Russian economy. The assessment of the functions and the activity of the existing development institutes is expected to be carried out from the point of view of spatial development, social and economic leveling, decentralization of management. In the paper the notion of the development institutes in the context of contemporary research is specified. Their strategic importance in the economic, industrial and regional development is emphasized. Within the goal of research the main problems of the functioning development institutes the directions of their modernization and improvement are defined. The measures and mechanisms of regional policy implementation on the basis of the development institutes activity in the Russian agriculture are analyzed...

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The environmental "cost" of doing business in the Southern federal district

The environmental "cost" of doing business in the Southern federal district

Starokozheva Galina Ivanovna, Mitrofanova Inna Vasilyevna

Статья научная

The article explores the issues of heterogeneity of economic development of subjects (regions) of the Southern Federal District, analyzes the impact of the economic activity on main indicators of pollution, which largely determine the quality of the natural environment. Authors show an assessment of air quality, recorded discharges of legal entities by contaminated wastewater, examines trends in waste formation and consumption in the subjects of the Southern Federal District, most of which belong to the type of old industrial regions. The authors believe that the sustainable development of the mixed economy of Southern Russia needs measures of systemic nature, aimed at the rational use of resources in the process of managing and preserving the environment that requires correction of the district and regional strategies and programs for socio-economic development. That is now the priority of the strategic territorial management, which involves the modernization of the economic complex of the Southern Federal District, taking into account the environmental imperative. The necessity of a transformation of Federal Districts into territorial centers for economic development, characterized by the economic space of a higher quality is becoming increasingly evident.

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The global competitiveness index of Central East European countries and its changes in the period between 2006 and 2014

The global competitiveness index of Central East European countries and its changes in the period between 2006 and 2014

Lks Lszl, Szira Zoltn, Othman Ghazala, Tth-Lks Klra

Статья научная

The fact according to which the small open market economics with developed public administration are capable of rapid growth has proved to be true in the third millennium, as well. It especially holds true for Singapore, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Ireland and Denmark which also have a prestigious position in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) of the World Economic Forum (WEF).The countries of Central and Central East Europe more or less similar to them could be characterised by an improving economic position following their change of the regime and a painful transitory period. This process was closely linked to the integration process of the Central European countries to the EU. At that point the international analyses examining the development of the countries in transition judged Hungary’s competitiveness situation to be the best (ranking 27th place due to the radical economic reforms carried out previously according to the analysts)...

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