National park visitor segments and their interest in rural tourism services and intention to revisit

Бесплатный доступ

The study aims to understand national park visitors’ interests to use tourism services provided in the vicinity of Linnansaari, Seitseminen and Repovesi national parks in Southern Finland. Separate visitor groups were identified based on their use of tourism services and their intention to revisit the area. Data were generated from a questionnaire survey of 736 visitors to the national parks. The analyses revealed five dimensions of interest in tourism services from which five visitor groups were identified: Countryside and outdoor friends, who were inter-ested in recreation services; safari riders, interested in renting snowmobiles and similar services; guided visitors, who were interested in guided tours; roomand rental seekers, whose main interest was accommodation and rental services, and uninterested, who had no interest in services. The strongest intentions to revisit the parks and the regions were recorded among “country-side and outdoor friends” and “safari riders”. The results of this study may help tourism enterprises, municipal-ity decision makers and park managers in rural communities surrounding national parks to understand and recognize visitors’ overall needs of tourism services.

Еще

Nature-based tourism, visitor, visitor segmentation, factor analysis, clustering

Короткий адрес: https://readera.org/140209443

IDR: 140209443   |   DOI: 10.1273712533

Список литературы National park visitor segments and their interest in rural tourism services and intention to revisit

  • Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Aho, S., & Ilola, H. (2004). Maaseutu suomalaisten asenteissa, toiveissa ja kokemuksissa. Lapin yliopiston kauppatieteiden ja matkailun tiedekunnan julkaisuja . B. Tutkimusraportteja ja selvityksiä 2.
  • Bansal, H., & Eiselt, H.A. (2004). Exploratory research of tourism motivations and planning. Tourism Management, 25, 387-396 DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00135-3
  • Baker, D.A., & Crompton, J.L. (2000). Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 785-804 DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00108-5
  • Beard, J.G., & Ragheb, M.G. (1980). Measuring leisure satisfaction. Journal of Leisure Research, 12(1), 20-33 DOI: 10.1177/004728758001900257
  • Beerli, A., & Martın, J.D. (2004). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 657-681 DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2004.01.010
  • Beh, A., & Bruyere, B.L. (2007). Segmentation by visitor motivation in three Kenyan national reserves. Tourism Management, 28(6), 1464-1471 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2007.01.010
  • Bigné, J.E., & Andreu, L. (2004). Emotions in segmentation. An empirical study. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 682-696 DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2003.12.018
  • Bigné, J.E., Sánchez, I.M., & Sánchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables, and after purchase behaviour: Inter-relationships. Tourism Management, 22(6), 607-616 DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00035-8
  • Bramwell, B. (1998). User satisfaction and product development in urban tourism. Tourism Management, 19, 35-47 DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(97)00091-5
  • Burge, J.F., & Resnick, B.P. (2000). Marketing and selling travel products (2nd ed., pp. 581-596). Albany, NY: Delmar/Thompson Learning.
  • Cai, L.A., Wu, B.,&Bai, B. (2004).Destination image and loyalty. TourismReview International, 7(3), 153-162.
  • Chen, H. -J., Hwang, S., & Lee, C. (2006). Visitor’s characteristics of guided interpretation tours. Journal of Business Re-search, 59, 1167-1181 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.09.006
  • Cordell, H.K., Bergstrom, J.C., & Watson, A.E. (1992). Economic growth and interdependence effects of state park visitation in local and state economics. Journal of Leisure Research, 24, 253-268.
  • Courtney, P., Hill, G., & Roberts, D. (2006). The role of natural heritage in rural development: An analysis of economic link-ages in Scotland. Journal of Rural Studies, 22, 469-484. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2006.02.003.
  • Crompton, J. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408-424 DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(79)90004-5
  • Eagles, P.F.J. (2004). Trends affecting tourism in protected areas. In T. Sievänen, J. Erkkonen, J. Jokimäki, J. Saarinen, S. Tuulentie, & E. Virtanen (Eds.), Policies, methods and tools for visitor management. Proceedings of the 2nd Interna-tional Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas. June 1620, 2004. Rovaniemi, Finland (p. 1725), Working papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 2. Available at: http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2004/mwp002.htm.
  • Eagles, P.F.J., & McCool, S. (2002). Tourism in national parks and protected areas: Planning and management. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 336 pp.
  • Erkkonen, J., & Sievänen, T. 2002. Standardisation of visitor surveys. Experiences from Finland. In A. Arnberger, C. Bran-denburg, & A. Muhar (Eds.). Monitoring and management of visitor flows in recreational and protected areas. January 30-February 2, 2002, Vienna Austria. MMVConference proceedings. Bodenkultur University Vienna, pp. 252-257.
  • Fodness, D. (1994). Measuring tourist motivation. Annals of Tourism Research, 21(3), 555-581 DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(94)90120-1
  • Fortin, M.-J., & Gagnon, C. (1999). An assessment of social impacts of national parks on communalities in Quebec, Canada. Environmental Conservation, 26(3), 200-211 DOI: 10.1017/S0376892999000284
  • Frochot, I. (2005). A benefit segmentation of tourists in rural areas: A Scottish perspective. Tourism Management, 26, 335-346 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2003.11.016
  • Galloway, G. (2002). Psychographic segmentation of park visitor markets: Evidence for the utility of sensation seeking. Tour-ism Management, 23, 581-596 DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(02)00025-0
  • Goodwin, H., & Dilys, R. (2001). Tourism, livelihoods and protected areas: Opportunities for fair-trade tourism in and around National parks. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3(5), 377-391, DOI: 10.1002/jtr.350
  • Goeldner, C.R., & Ritchie, J.R.B. (2009). Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies, (11th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 624 pp.
  • Gunn, C.A. (2002). Tourism planning. Basics, concepts, cases (4th ed.). New York and London: Routledge, 442 pp.
  • Hailu, G., Boxall, P.C., & McFarlane, B.L. (2005). The influence of place attachment on recreation demand. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26(4), 581-598 DOI: 10.1016/j.joep.2004.11.003
  • Harju-Autti, A. (2010). Matkailun yleisosa. TEM: n ja ELY-keskusten julkaisu. Toimialaraportti 9/2010. . 69 pp.
  • Haukeland, J.V., Grue, B., & Veisten, K. (2010). Turning national parks into tourist attractions: Nature orientation and quest for facilities. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 10(3), 248-271 DOI: 10.1080/15022250.2010.502367
  • Hemmilä, T. (2008). Repoveden kansallispuiston kävijätutkimus 2007. . Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja, Sarja B, 101. 51 pp.
  • Hong-Bumm, K. (1998). Perceived attractiveness of Korean destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(2), 340-361 DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(98)00007-3
  • Huang, S., & Hsu, C.H.C. (2009). Effects of travel motivation, past experience, perceived constraint, and attitude on revisit intention. Journal of Travel Research, 48(29), 29-44 DOI: 10.1177/0047287508328793
  • Kastenholz, E., Davis, D., & Paul, G. (1999). Segmenting tourism in rural areas: The case of North and Central Portugal. Journal of Travel Research, 37(4), 341-352 DOI: 10.1177/004728759903700405
  • Kauppila, P. (1999). Matkailun taloudelliset vaikutukset Inarissa: Tunnuslukuja ja arviointia. . Nordia tiedonantoja 4/1999, 88-95.
  • Kemperman, A.D.M., Chang-Hyeon, J., & Timmermans, H.J.P. (2004). Comparing first-time and repeat visitors’ activity pat-terns. Tourism Analysis, 8, 159-164.
  • Kerstetter, D.L., Hou, J.-S., & Lin, C.-H. (2004). Profiling Taiwanese ecotourists using a behavioural approach. Tourism Management, 25, 491-498 DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00119-5
  • Kotler, P. (1988). Marketing management: Analysis, planning and control (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 792 pp.
  • Lam, T., & Hsu, C.H.C. (2006). Predicting behavioural intention of choosing a travel destination. Tourism Management, 27, 589-599 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2005.02.003
  • Lau, A.L. S., & McKercher, B. (2004). Exploration versus acquisition: A comparison of first-time and repeat visitors. Journal of Travel Research, 42, 279-285 DOI: 10.1177/0047287503257502
  • Lee, T.H. (2009). A structural model to examine how destination image, attitude, and motivation affect the future behaviour of tourists. Leisure Sciences, 31(3), 215-236 DOI: 10.1080/01490400902837787
  • Lee, T.H. (2006). Assessing a river tracing behavioural model: A Taiwan example. Anatolia, 17(2), 322-328 DOI: 10.1080/13032917.2006.9687194
  • Lee, J., Graefe, A.R., & Burns, R.C. (2007). Examining the antecedents of destination loyalty in a forest setting. Leisure Sci-ences, 29(5), 463-481 DOI: 10.1080/01490400701544634
  • Li, X., Cheng, C.-K., Kim, H., & Petrick, J.F. (2008). A systematic comparison of first-time and repeat visitors via a two-phase online survey. Tourism Management, 29, 278-293. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.010.
  • Lundmark, L.J.T., Fredman, P., & Sandell, K. (2010). National parks and protected areas and the role for employment in tourism and forest sectors: A Swedish case. Ecology and Society, 15(1), 19. Available at: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss1/art19/.
  • Machlis, G.E., & Field, D.R. (2000). National parks and rural development. Practice and policy in the United States. Wash-ington, DC: Island Press, 323 pp.
  • Manning, R.E. (2011). Studies in outdoor recreation. Search and research for satisfaction (3rd ed.). Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 468 pp.
  • McKercher, B., & Wong, D.Y.Y. (2004). Understanding tourism behavior: Examining the combined effects of prior visitation history and destination status. Journal of Travel Research, 43, 171-179 DOI: 10.1177/0047287504268246
  • Mehmetoglu, M. (2007). Typologising nature-based tourists by an activity -theoretical and practical implications. Tourism Management, 28, 651-660 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.02.006
  • Metsähallitus. (2009a). Kansallispuistojen ja retkeilyalueiden kävijöiden rahankäytön paikallistaloudelliset vaikutukset . Metsähallitus, luontopalvelut. Report . Available at: http://www.metsa.fi/sivustot/metsa/fi/Eraasiatjaretkeily/Virkistyskaytonsuunnittelu/suojelualueidenmerkity-spaikallistaloudelle/Documents/Kavijoiden%20paikallistaloudelliset%20vaikutukset.pdf.
  • Metsähallitus. (2009b). Metsähallitus’s data base system for visitor information (ASTA). .
  • Metsähallitus. (2010). Financial statements and Annual report of Metsähallitus’ Business operations 31 Jan 2010. Retrieved August 5, 2011 from: http://www.metsa.fi/sivustot/metsa/en/WhatsNew/Publications/Documents/financial_state-ment_2011_eng.pdf
  • Metsähallitus. (2011a). Sustainable nature tourism in protected areas. Retrieved June 29, 2011 from: www.metsa.fi/sustain-ablenaturetourism.
  • Metsähallitus. (2011b). National parks. Retrieved June 29, 2011 from: http://www.outdoors.fi/DESTINATIONS/NA-TIONALPARKS.
  • Mok, C., & Iverson, T.J. (2000). Expenditure-based segmentation: Taiwanese tourists to Guam. Tourism Management, 21, 299-305 DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00060-6
  • Molera, L., & Albaladejo, I.P. (2007). Profiling segments of tourists in rural areas of South-Eastern Spain. Tourism Manage-ment, 28, 757-767 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.05.006
  • More, A.T., Stevens, T., Kuentzel, W., & Dustin, D. (2008). Changing demand for U.S. national parks: Causes and ethical implications for preservation. In M. Sipilä, L. Tyrväinen, & E. Virtanen (Eds.), Forest recreation & tourism serving urbanised societies. Joint Final Conference of Forest for Recreation and Tourism (COST E33) and 11th European Forim on Urban Forestry (EFUF), Hämeenlinna, Finland, 28.31.5.2008. Abstrcts, 69 pp.
  • Neuvonen, M., Pouta, E., Puustinen, J., & Sievänen, T. (2010). Visits to national parks: Effects of park characteristics and spatial demand. Journal for Nature Conservation, 18(3), 224-229. doi:10.1016/j.jnc.2009.10.003.
  • Neuvonen, M., Pouta, E., & Sievänen, T. (2010). Intention to revisit a national park and its vicinity: Effect of place attachment and quality perceptions. International Journal of Sociology, 40(3), 5170 DOI: 10.2753/IJS0020-7659400303
  • Opaschowski, H.G. (2001). Tourismus in 21. Jahrhundert. Das gekauhte Paradies 1. Hamburg: Auflage. B.A.T. Freitzeit-Forschunginstitut GmbH, 468 pp.
  • Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism destination loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, 39(1), 78-84. doi:10.1177/004728750003900110.
  • Pan, S., & Ryan, C. (2007). Mountain areas and visitor usage -motivations and determinants of satisfaction: The case of Pirongia Forest Park, New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(3), 288-308 DOI: 10.2167/jost662.0
  • Park, D.-B., & Yoon, Y.-S. (2009). Segmentation by motivation in rural tourism: A Korean case study. Tourism Management, 30, 99-108 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2008.03.011
  • Pollari, T. (1998). Rantasalmi-Linnansaaren kansallistpuisto. . In T. Muho-nen & S. Sulonen (Eds.), Kansallispuistojen juhlavuoden seminaari Kolilla. [The Jubilee Year Seminar of National
  • Pouta, E., & Sievänen, T. (2001). Luonnon virkistyskäytön kysyntätutkimuksen tulokset -Kuinka suomalaiset ulkoilevat. In T. Sievänen (Ed.), Luonnon virkistyskäyttö 2000. Luonnon virkistyskäytön valtakunnallinen inventointi, LVVI-tutkimus, 1997-2000, Loppuraportti. . Metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tiedonantoja, 802, 32-76.
  • Pouta, E. & Sievänen, T. (2002). Eteläsuomalaiset luontomatkailijat ja luontomatkojen suuntautuminen. . Terra, 114, 149-156.
  • Pouta, E., Sievänen, T., & Neuvonen, M. (2004). Profiling recreational users of national parks, national hiking areas and wil-derness areas in Finland. In T. Sievänen, J. Erkkonen, J. Jokimäki, J. Saarinen, S. Tuulentie, & E. Virtanen (Eds.), Policies, methods and tools for visitor management -Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Monitoring and Manage-ment of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas. Working papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, 2, pp. 347-354. Available at: http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2004/mwp002-en.htm.
  • Pulkkinen, S., & Valta, V. (2008). Linnansaaren kansallispuiston kävijätutkimus 2006. . Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja, Sarja B, 86. 56 pp.
  • Ross, E.I.D., & Iso-Ahola, S.E. (1991). Sightseeing tourists’ motivation and satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 18, 226-237 DOI: 10.1016/0160-7383(91)90006-W
  • Saarinen, J. (2003). The regional economic of tourism in Northern Finland: The socioeconomic implications of re-cent tourism development and future possibilities. Scandinavian Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 3, 91-113 DOI: 10.1080/15022250310001927
  • Salo, K. (1996). Kolin matkailun ja suojelun ydinkohtia sadan vuoden ajalta. . Metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tiedonantoja, , 718, 52-58.
  • Selby, A., & Petäjistö, L. (2008). Entrepreneurial activity adjacent to small national parks in Southern Finland: Are business opportunities being realised? Working papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, 96, 39 pp. Available at: http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2008/mwp096.htm.
  • Selby, A., Sievänen, T., Neuvonen, M., Petäjistö, L., Pouta, E., & Puustinen, J. (2007).
  • Kansallispuistoverkoston matkailullinen luokittelu. . Working papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, 61, 41 pp, Available at: http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp061.htm.
  • Selby, A., Sievänen, T., Petäjistö, L., & Neuvonen, M. (2010). Kansallispuistojen merkitys maaseutumatkailulle. . Working papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, 161, 49 pp. Available at: http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2010/mwp161.htm.
  • Sievänen, T., Pouta, E., & Neuvonen, M. (2007). Recreational home users -potential clients for countryside tourism? Scan-dinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 7(3), 223-242. doi:10.1080/15022250701300207.
  • Simpson, M., Pichler, V., Martin, S., & Brouwer, R. (2009). Integrating forest recreation and nature tourism into rural econo-my. In S. Bell, M. Simpson, L. Tyrväinen, T. Sievänen, & U. Pröbstl (Eds.), European forest recreation and tourism. London and New York: Taylor & Francis, pp. 64-85.
  • Sparks, B. (2007). Planning a wine tourism vacation? Factors that help to predict tourist behavioural intentions. Tourism Management, 28(5), 1180-1192 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.11.003
  • T. Sievänen et al. Downloaded by at 05:17 07 April 2015
  • Sönmez, S.F., & Graefe, A.R. (1998). Determining future travel behavior from past travel experience and perceptions of risk and safety. Journal of Travel Research, 37(2), 171-177. doi:10.1177/004728759803700209.
  • Tapachai, N., & Waryszak, R. (2000). An examination of the role of beneficial image in tourist destination selection. Journal of Travel Research, 39(3), 37-44 DOI: 10.1177/004728750003900105
  • Tian-Cole, S., & Cromption, J.L. (2003). A conceptualization of the relationships between service quality and visitor satisfac-tion, and their links to destination selection. Leisure Studies, 22(1), 65-80 DOI: 10.1080/02614360306572
  • Tunturi, K. (2008). Seitsemisen kansallispuiston kävijätutkimus 2006-2007. . Metsähallituksen luonnonsuojelujulkaisuja. In Sarja. B., 95, 69 pp.
  • Um, S., Chon, K., & Ro, Y.H. (2006). Antecedents of revisit intention. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4), 1141-1158 DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2006.06.003
  • Vassiliadis, C.A. (2008). Destination product characteristics as useful predictors for repeat visiting and recommendation segmentation variables in tourism: A CHAID exhaustive analysis. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10, 439-452 DOI: 10.1002/jtr.678
  • Wall-Reinius, S., & Fredman, P. (2007). Protected areas as attractions. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(4), 839-854 DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2007.03.011
  • Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: A structural model. Tourism Management, 26, 45-56 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2003.08.01
Еще
Статья научная