Статьи журнала - Материалы по археологии и истории античного и средневекового Причерноморья

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"Bad-style" coins or imitation?

"Bad-style" coins or imitation?

Prokopov I.S.

Статья научная

The aim of this article is to discuss a very important topic of interest and to define the character of an immense group of coins, namely - the group of the tetradrachms, which, according to the author, are called the tetradrachms of the island of Thasos, and the “Thasos type” tetradrachms of “bad-style”. A number of authors have supported the hypothesis that the coins in question are eastern Celtic imitations. The author of this article has analyzed a number of large coin hoards, which he has already sorted and published. The methodology includes the analysis of spatial distribution; the examination of the internal chronology and dynamics of the coinage; a “die-study”. The author has divided the coinage in terms of names and types of Thasians present on the coins in three main groups: original - up until approximately the end of the 2nd Century BCE; of a “Thasos type” under the control of the Roman administration in Macedonia in the period up until ca. 80 BCE; imitative - after 70 BCE. At the same time, the author has given his own definition regarding which tetradrachms of the “Dionysios Soter” type are imitations. These are the rough and almost completely barbarous imitations, on which the legends are simply forged by marks. The images are stylized and they diverge from the prototype. The coins themselves, which have so far been called imitations, the author has divided into three groups: the first and the second ones he refers to as “bad-style” coins, whereas the third one he calls “real” imitations. The question of the so-called imitations of the tetradrachms of the Macedonian regions has been touched upon, as well.

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"Nulla salus bello est", или Херсонес при Митридате VI Евпаторе Дионисе: по данным нумизматики

"Nulla salus bello est", или Херсонес при Митридате VI Евпаторе Дионисе: по данным нумизматики

Чореф М.М.

Статья научная

В конце II в. до н.э. гражданская община Херсонеса добровольно признала зависимость своего полиса от Понтийского царства. Ее решение нашло свое отражение в денежных эмиссиях. В Херсонесе были выпущены бронзовые дихалки с бюстом Гелиоса на аверсе и с рогом изобилия и с шапками Диоскуров на реверсе. Их чеканили под контролем номофилака Гераклида. При нем отношения Понта и Херсонеса строились на основе договора о симмахии. Позже Херсонесом управлял царский наместник Деметрий. Он выпустил драхмы с изображениями Девы на лицевой и оборотной сторонах. Эти монеты поступили в обращение в период острого дефицита платежных средств в Херсонесе, вызванного борьбой Вифинии и Понта за Каппадокию в 103/102 гг. до н.э. После Деметрия денежная эмиссия в Херсонесе на время прекратилась. Уменьшился и приток иноземных монет. Экономика Херсонеса страдала от спада внешней торговли, вызванного войнами, которые вел Митридат VI Евпатор Дионис. Город возобновил денежную эмиссию только во время восстания 63 г. до н.э. Тогда поступили в обращение тетрахалки Агафона. Он при Митридате VI Евпаторе Дионисе командовал местным гарнизоном. В результате мятежа 63 г. до н.э. Агафон стал тираном Херсонеса.

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"Казарма" в портовом районе города: основные итоги исследования (взгляд из Херсонеса)

"Казарма" в портовом районе города: основные итоги исследования (взгляд из Херсонеса)

Ушаков С.В.

Статья научная

В статье представлены результаты археологических исследований комплекса построек, известных в историографии как «Казарма» в Портовом районе Херсонеса, проведенных совместной экспедицией Харьковского государственного университета и Национального заповедника «Херсонес Таврический» в 1993-1998 гг. В ходе работ было завершено изучение всех основных составных частей этого архитектурно-археологического комплекса: Центр «Казармы», «Галерея», помещений 35, 36 (А, Б, В, К), 38, 61, 63 и др. Была осуществлена его графическая фиксация. Также в ходе работ была прослежена стратиграфия напластований культурного слоя. Получен значительный массовый археологический материал. Результаты его изучения позволяют проследить основные этапы строительной истории и реконструировать внешний вид «Казармы».

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"Кафский логос" Шильтбергера

"Кафский логос" Шильтбергера

Еманов А.Г.

Статья научная

Проводится сравнительный анализ описаний Кафы в рукописных копиях сочинения Ханса Шильтбергера и в инкунабулах. Рассмотрены гейдельбергская, баденская и мюнхенская рукописи конца XV в., а также три аугсбургских издания 1476-1477, 1480 и 1486 гг. Выявлены разночтения, появившиеся более поздние коррективы, установлен приоритет первой инкунабулы по отношению к имеющимся рукописям, ее непосредственное восхождение к несохранившемуся автографу. Уточняются статус Кафы как столицы Черного моря, зафиксированный Шильтбергером, а также городская микроструктура - выделение городского ядра (урбс, каструм), отделенного первым ярусом крепостных стен, четырех бургов, отграниченных второй линией крепостных сооружений, и пригорода (антибург). Определяются шесть конфессиональных общин Кафы, отмеченных баварским наблюдателем. Подвергнуты критическому анализу количественные данные о Кафе, приведенные Шильтбергером.

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"Княжеские" находки и центры власти гуннского времени на периферии Понтийской степи

"Княжеские" находки и центры власти гуннского времени на периферии Понтийской степи

Казанский М.М.

Статья научная

Рассматривается география распространения т.н. «княжеских» находок, относящихся к последней трети IV - первой половине V вв. на северной и западной периферии причерноморских степей, занятых в то время гуннами. Данные находки связаны с оседлым населением, поскольку располагаются на территории, где фиксируются археологические культуры оседлых варваров. География их распространения позволяет выявить центры власти, варварские «королевства» на окраине гуннской степи. Вне всякого сомнения, эти центры власти находились в зоне военно-политического доминирования гуннов. По отношению к зависимым от них оседлым варварам, гунны применяли две формы управления. В первом случае власть осуществлялась через посредство назначенного гуннами наместника. Вторая форма управления предполагала существование вассальных варварских политических образований, где гунны использовали власть местной оседлой аристократии.

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Book review: Apat'oczky, 'A.B., Atwood, Ch.P. (eds.), Kempf, B. (g.-ed.). 2018. Philology of the grasslands: essays in Mongolic, Turkic, and Tungusic studies. Leiden; Boston: Brill (The languages of Asia. Vol. 17)

Book review: Apat'oczky, 'A.B., Atwood, Ch.P. (eds.), Kempf, B. (g.-ed.). 2018. Philology of the grasslands: essays in Mongolic, Turkic, and Tungusic studies. Leiden; Boston: Brill (The languages of Asia. Vol. 17)

Erk Kutluay

Рецензия

Professor György Kara, a distinguished member of academia, celebrated his 80th birthday recently. His students and colleagues commemorated this occasion with papers on Altaic Studies. The work, which consists of 24 articles, was edited by Ákos Bertalan Apatóczky and Christopher P. Atwood, and guest-edited by Béla Kempf. The main topics discussed in the work are Manuscripts-Texts Analyse, Sino-Mongol Glossaries, Middle Turkic, Middle Mongolian, Oirat, Tungus, Modern Mongolian, Khalka, Kipchak, Morphology.

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Celto-Scythians and celticization in Ukraine and the North Pontic region

Celto-Scythians and celticization in Ukraine and the North Pontic region

Mac Gonagle Brendan

Статья научная

The article provides an overview of the available linguistic, numismatic and archaeological evidence pertaining to the expansion of the La Tene culture into the area of modern Ukraine and the North Pontic region from the 3rd century BC onwards. A distinction is observed between the situation in western Ukraine where the process of Celtic migration - colonization is reflected in the archaeological evidence, and further east where the presence of Celtic “warrior bands” - mercenary groups have been identified. The testimony in ancient sources to the emergence of mixed Celto-Scythian populations in this area is also considered.

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Coin as a means of propaganda (according to Georgian numismatics)

Coin as a means of propaganda (according to Georgian numismatics)

Dundua Tedo, Avdaliani Emil

Статья научная

Everywhere coin facilitated exchange of goods. It was employed also for different propaganda. Georgians did the same as seen in the monetary groups and types as follows: municipal copper coins of Trapezus with the effigy of Mithras, Georgian-Sassanian drachms, Georgian-Byzantine coins, coins of Giorgi III - king with falcon on hand. So, at least some of monetary types issued in Georgia served for propaganda.

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Coin as a means of propaganda (according to the 12th - 18th cc. Georgian money)

Coin as a means of propaganda (according to the 12th - 18th cc. Georgian money)

Dundua Tedo, Chikobava Akaki

Статья научная

In the seventh issue of the journal Materials on Archeology and History of the Ancient and Medieval Crimea, Tedo Dundu and Emil Avdaliani's article "Coin as a Means of Propaganda (According to Georgian Numismatics)" is presented. In this issue follows its continuation. Throughout the world, coins contributed to the exchange of goods. They were also used as a means of propaganda. Georgia was not an exception. This is evident from the example of the following coin groups: Georgian loan money of the XII century. - the 1920s of the 13th century, coins of Georgian kings in the 13th-14th centuries, Western Georgian coins of the 13th and 15th centuries, as well as coins of Georgian kings in the 18th century. We take the results of our study for a scientific discussion.

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Coin hoard from the rescue archaeological excavations at site 11Б - Chukovezer village, Dragoman municipality. Comparative analysis with coin hoards from the region of Southwestern Bulgaria

Coin hoard from the rescue archaeological excavations at site 11Б - Chukovezer village, Dragoman municipality. Comparative analysis with coin hoards from the region of Southwestern Bulgaria

Borislavov B., Georgieva E., Prokopov I., Doychinova M.

Статья научная

This paper focuses on coin hoard found in a ceramic vessel during rescue archeological excavations in Chukovezer village, Dragoman municipality, Sofia district. Coin hoard consists of 23 roman bronze coins -folles from the period of the Tetrarchy and Constantine the Great. The earliest coins (2 coins) belong to emperors Galerius Maximianus and Maximinus II Daia. The most numerous coins (13 coins) are those struck under Constantine the Great. The next small group of coins (8 folles) belong to emperor Licinius I. The event that provoked the concealment of the hoard was the First Civil War between Licinius I and Constantine I that began in 316, and the battle at Campus Mardiensis (Harmanli) in particular, taking place probably in the late 316 - early 317. The further issue discussed in the paper is comparative analysis with coin hoards found in the region of the Southwestern Bulgaria with roman coins of the same period.

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Coin hoard with imitations of Philip II from Bulgaria

Coin hoard with imitations of Philip II from Bulgaria

Slavova M., Prokopov I.

Статья научная

The subject of the publication is a coin hoard containing 179 imitations known as “East Celtic”. They repeat the iconographic type of the tetradrachms of Philip II. The coin type is well known and falls into the classifications of all researchers of the so-called Celtic coinage.The authors of this material do not comment on the issue of the ethnic origin of the issuer. Also the about question of the center of this abundant coinage. The purpose of the publication is to present one of the most voluminous finds of this coin type discovered south of the Danube River. Another important aim of the material is introduce into scientific circulation some results from the study of the weight and metal content of the coins.According to previous research, the range of distribution of this imitative type is mainly north of the Danube River. They are included in all catalogs of Celtic coins, but information on their location is scarce. Often the authors present information only from which collection the coins are from...

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Continuity or change? An analysis of fortified church complexes in Southern Georgia

Continuity or change? An analysis of fortified church complexes in Southern Georgia

Licheli Vakhtang, Dan Roberto, Vitolo Priscilla, Cesaretti Andrea, Chogovadze Tamar, Chilingarashvili Tornike

Статья научная

This article describes and discusses a series of archaeological sites. All the sites contain an ancient enclosure built using clearly pre-medieval masonries, inside of which a number of churches have been built. The dates of these fortified structures, usually improperly defined as built using “cyclopean technique”, cannot be established without archaeological excavations. Recent attempts have been made to establish functional continuity between the ancient enclosures and the churches inside them. The goal of this text is to present and discuss these interesting sites and analyse the available data relating to the function of these structures from a diachronic perspective.

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Hebrew gravestone inscriptions from Jewish cemeteries in the Raysn region (Belarus and Ukraine)

Hebrew gravestone inscriptions from Jewish cemeteries in the Raysn region (Belarus and Ukraine)

Nosonovsky Michael

Статья научная

Hebrew gravestone inscriptions from Jewish cemeteries from the region called Raysn (mostly in current Belarus and partially in Ukraine) are studied as a historical source and a literature genre. The epitaphs express the idea of a connection between the ideal world of Scripture and religious Hebrew books and the world of everyday life of a shtetl or community. This can be traced at several levels. First, at the level of inscriptions’ structure, the epitaph includes an indication of the place (“here lies”), time (date), and name, thus tying the deceased to a specific “coordinate system”. Second, biblical quotations emphasize the relation of a particular life and death to the situation with that described in the Bible. Third, at the language level, despite the fact that epitaphs are almost always written in Hebrew and not in Yiddish, we are dealing with certain features of Hebrew-Yiddish bilingualism. Hebrew terms could simultaneously be Yiddish lexemes. We observe orthography code-switching between Hebrew consonant spelling and Yiddish phonetic spelling, depending on whether the concept is found in Hebrew holy books or in everyday life. Fourth, epitaphs occupy an intermediate position between the “high”, author's literature and canonical religion, on the one hand, and folk literature and religion, on the other hand. The difference between the epitaphs from Ukraine and Belarus is discussed.

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King Pacorus/Bakur of Lazi

King Pacorus/Bakur of Lazi

Phiphia Natia

Статья научная

The personality of Pacorus/Bakur the king of Lazi has become the subject of an interesting historiographic discussion in recent years. The discovery of a pitcher in Achmarda with the inscription “Ἐγὼ Πάκουρος βασιλεὺς τοῖς μνοῖς ἒδωκα” played a key role in stimulating discussion of this issue. There is every reason to believe that king Pacorus/Bakur played an active role in the events that occurred on the territory of Georgia in the third quarter of the 3rd century CE. We take into account the information provided in the “Scriptores Historiae Augustae”, on the facts of the discovery of Greek inscriptions on the signet from Zhinvali and on silver vessels from Gagra and Maikop, and also take into account the passage from “Life of Kartli”. There is every reason to believe that Pacorus/Bakur became king of Lazi at the behest of Antoninus Pius. The Lazi managed to unite the whole Western Georgia under their rule after half of a century. Pacorus/Bakur also supposedly participated in the power struggle in Iberia. The very fact of the discovery of a pitcher that attracted our attention suggests that Pacorus/Bakur controlled the area of modern Gagra.

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New materials on sacrificial animals in Yanglang culture burials of the 5th - 3rd cc. BCE (China)

New materials on sacrificial animals in Yanglang culture burials of the 5th - 3rd cc. BCE (China)

Shulga P.I., Shulga D.P.

Статья научная

This article focuses on the analysis of the sacrificial animals remains in burials of the 5th - 3rd сс. BCE of the Yanglang Culture Wangdahu burial ground identified with the Western Rongs who lived on the Qin kingdom western borders. As a rule, Eurasia Cattle breeders placed one or two parts or livestock carcasses in ordinary burials. In contrast to them, in the Yanglang Culture in one person ordinary burial up to 30, 50 or more skulls of all major livestock species (horses, cattle, sheep and goats) could be placed. In the analysis of sacrificial animals from the Yanglang Culture burial grounds detailed description, the authors came to the conclusion that in a number of burials the composition of animal species and their ratio fully correspond to the Central Asia nomads’ herd averaged data. Apparently, the burial grounds organizers were sent real herd to the other world with the dead people or recruited animals for slaughter keeping the proportions known to them. The proportion of horses is much higher in the chariot warriors` burials which is associated with the deceased special status. As it turned out, even 1-3 years old children could have such status during burial in Wangdahu. Foals and votive weapons full set were placed in such burials. All of this suggests the chariot warrior’s high status which was established in the funeral rite. The maintenance and training of chariot horses large number, the horses and chariot warriors equipment manufacturing required the state structures participation. It is no coincidence that the number of chariots served as a state power yardstick in ancient China. All these preliminary observations and conclusions are consistent with indirect information from Chinese historical sources about the developed horse breeding among the Western Rongs, their special relationship with the Qin kingdom and possibly the early state formation existence among them.

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Prohibitive and inhibitive factors of marriage in Samegrelo (Western Georgia)

Prohibitive and inhibitive factors of marriage in Samegrelo (Western Georgia)

Ketevan Tsimintia

Статья научная

Social relationships, including marriage, were regulated by ecclesiastical and secular laws as well as by customs in Georgian society. Various kinds of prohibitions existed. Today majority of the customs are lost because of globalization. However, customs concerning marriage restrictions are relatively well preserved in people’s memory. Different clans that do not marry each other were revealed by the ethnological research in historical-ethnographic region of Georgia - Samegrelo. Breaking marriage restriction by different socially related groups was strictly prohibited. Moreover, in some cases, clans or lineages which became relatives artificially had to follow the same strict rules of marriage prohibition. Different clans, lineages and patronymies studied by the ethnographic research conducted on the field, revealed the strength of the customs even today. The result of the research revealed, that prohibitive factors of marriage between different clans, lineages or patronymies were customary rules in Samegrelo, such are “ ginochama ”, serving to the same shrine, becoming relatives via Christianity and etc. However, marriage prohibition determined by Christianity affected only to minor lineages and patronymies rather than the big ones or clans. The memory of common origin is inhibitive factor of marriage, but not prohibitive similarly to the memory of past social inequality.

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Some notes on proper names and official titles in the mongol-un niuca tobciyan: inal/inanca/inaq

Some notes on proper names and official titles in the mongol-un niuca tobciyan: inal/inanca/inaq

Buell Paul David, Erk Kutluay

Статья научная

Mongɣol-un niɣuca tobčiyan, the “Secret History of the Mongol,” is the only work of its kind from the era of the Mongolian world Empire, it has a complex history as a text but was originally written in (Middle) Mongolian. It is a linguistically very rich source, not only for the Mongols but for many other groups who are seen allied with or appear fighting against the Mongols, the latter bearers of the power of Eternal Heaven and of the potent sanction of the ancestors. Thus, in addition to overt political assertions to guide the new Mongolian Empire, and its rulers’ managers, and commanders, and containing carefully selected and crafted statements of events of myth and history. These are designed to buoy up the imperial state of affairs and Mongolian society in general, Adapted documents and even works of a literary character are among the devices used to this end. Given its nature, it is only to be expected too that the “Secret History” also is a rich source of a full history behind the scenes of told by the personal names and epithets, and titles of Mongols, but also the names, epithets, and titles of many non-Mongols who had military, political and diplomatic contacts with the Mongols in the early 13th century. These names, epithets, and titles tell entirely their own story. Thus, grasping their potential importance, these names, epithets and, titles have been studied by many researchers, from a variety of perspectives.Here, we, a Mongolist and a Turkologist, have banded together, to follow in the footsteps of these investigators who have gone before, offering our historical-comparative analysis of the related words inal/inanča/inaq, and their semantic and morphological structure, examined within a larger context of the “Secret History” and its monumental, literary linguistic and cultural world. Our analysis will be primarily based on the “Secret History,” but also on other historical texts and documents, as well as information offered by Mongolists, but also provided by those in closely related disciplines, in Turkology in particular, for example, this is only natural since Mongols and Turks closely interacted in building an empire, and the new, often mixed cultures that emerged from it.

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Syrian and Armenian Christianity in Northern Macedonia from the middle of the eighth to the middle of the ninth century

Syrian and Armenian Christianity in Northern Macedonia from the middle of the eighth to the middle of the ninth century

Louri Basil

Статья научная

Syrian and Armenian influence has been felt in the Old Bulgarian culture by different scholars, such as archaeologists and architecture historians as well as historians of the earliest Bulgarian writing and manuscripts. Some of them, looking for a possible source of this influence, pointed to resettling a large Syrian and Armenian population from the former Roman Armenia's lands in the Caliphate to northern Macedonia in the 750s. An exhaustive overview of the literary sources related to this resettlement (in Greek, Syriac, Arabic, and Armenian) demonstrates that took place a translatio urbis of Theodosiopolis/Karin (modern Erzurum) together with a great part of Christian population of the Great Armenia and Melitene. The immigrants created new cities where preserved and developed their local cults, including the famous cult of the Fifteen Martyrs of Theodosiopolis/Strumica.

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The cultures of the early iron age in China as a part of the Scythian world

The cultures of the early iron age in China as a part of the Scythian world

Shulga P.I., Shulga D.P.

Статья научная

Based on archaeological and written sources, the authors characterizes the two ethno cultural regions of the 9th - 3rd centuries BCE that developed in the east of the Scythian world - in Xinjiang and North China. In the 9th - 8th centuries BCE there, in local cultures of transitional appearance, burial complexes with “Scythian triad” individual elements in the Animal style in a horse bridle are recorded. It is obvious that both of these areas were the early Scythian cultures formation centers like the center in Tyva. At the same time, according to all sources, the Animal style was brought to the China territory from Mongolia. Due to natural factors, in these areas up to the 2nd century BCE Scythian cultures developed almost in isolation from each other in contact with the adjacent Kazakhstan, Southern Siberia and Mongolia regions. In the second half of the 4th century BCE the northern part of Xinjiang (including the Tien Shan) get closed culturally with Pazyryk culture of Altai, and then to the Sakas and Wusuns of Kazakhstan. At this time the North China cultures were in close contact with South Siberia population. At the same time, some Scythian-like features were preserved in them until 3rd - 2nd centuries BCE, even after the Han and Xiongnu empires formation at the end of the 3rd century BCE.

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The import of gun barrels and their price in Georgia in 17th - 18th cc.

The import of gun barrels and their price in Georgia in 17th - 18th cc.

Tabuashvili Apolon

Статья научная

Firearms were manufactured in Georgia from the 17th-18th centuries, as a result of which they were widespread among the population. In the 17th and especially the 18th centuries, Georgians, in large part, used firearms. In addition, the products manufactured in Tbilisi were distributed to neighboring countries. Flintlock rifles had three main components: the gun barrel, the flintlock and the stock. According to sources, in Tbilisi, shock-flint locks and butts were produced locally. When it comes to gun barrels, the picture is different. Typically, imported weapons barrels from Crimea were used to manufacture firearms in Tbilisi and the rest of Georgia. It is because of the Crimean barrels in Georgia that the most common name for firearms was "Kirimi" / "Hirimi". The Weapon Fund of Ethnology and Modern History of the National Museum of Georgia (Museum of Georgia named after Simon Janashia) contains hundreds of rifles with weapon barrels imported from Crimea. The import of gun barrels was well documented in the Georgian tax tariff, which allowed scientists to determine the prices of weapons at the time.

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