Analysis of the existing methodological approaches to the problem of establishing the boundaries of soil pollution with the main pollutants and metal-containing nanoparticles in the areas of location of unauthorized dumps

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Introduction. Unauthorized dumps are territories that are not permitted and not equipped in accordance with the current legislation of the territory, where waste products are disposed of. Most of the unauthorized dumps, both industrial and municipal solid waste (MSW), are objects of accumulated harm. In connection with the increase in the use of nanoparticles of various genesis in engineering materials, there is a need to assess their impact on environmental components and human health. One of the main marker substances that determine the ecotoxicological effect of dumps are heavy metals, including those entering the environment in the form of metal-containing nanoparticles. Their identification, determination of the processes of horizontal and vertical migration of pollutants (P), identification of the intensity of negative processes are necessary information for making decisions on the choice of methods and technologies for recultivation of disturbed areas. Currently, there are no legislative acts (LA) that take into account the specifics of such objects in the study of territories within the framework of environmental surveys (ES), which necessarily precede the implementation of project documentation for recultivation. A vital task is to develop a methodological approach to diagnosing the state of territories disturbed as a result of waste disposal, and to reliably determine the boundaries of soil pollution, taking into account modern trends in the development of nanotechnology. Methods and materials. The analytical study was based on the results of environmental surveys at four unauthorized dumps of the Republic of Bashkortostan (three dumps for municipal solid waste (MSW) and one dump for industrial waste), carried out in 2019–2020. Results and discussion. A study of the reliability and completeness of determining the level of soil pollution in the territory of the dumps was made. Deviations from the requirements of СS 11-102-97, GOST 17.4.3.01-83 in terms of the number of sampling points and their spatial location were revealed. It was found that the requirements of Article 1 and Article 80.1 of the Federal Law of 10.01.2001 No.7-FL “On Protection of Environment” on identifying negative environmental changes and establishing the ability of pollutants to migrate to other components of the environment were not taken into account. Conclusions. The existing methodological approaches to establishing the boundaries of soil pollution in the areas where unauthorized dumps are located require revision and specification.

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Waste, unauthorized dumps, soils, pollutants, metal nanoparticles, environmental surveys (ES), environment

Короткий адрес: https://readera.org/142226906

IDR: 142226906   |   DOI: 10.15828/2075-8545-2021-13-3-193-200

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