Аэрополлютанты как факторы риска развития кардиометаболической патологии: аналитический обзор

Автор: Носов Александр Евгеньевич, Байдина Анастасия Сергеевна, Устинова Ольга Юрьевна

Журнал: Анализ риска здоровью @journal-fcrisk

Рубрика: Аналитические обзоры

Статья в выпуске: 4 (36), 2021 года.

Бесплатный доступ

Влиянием загрязнения окружающего воздуха обусловливается порядка 3,3 млн преждевременных смертей в год (2,1 млн от ишемической болезни сердца и 1,1 млн от инсульта). Смертность, связанная с загрязнением воздуха, превосходит смертность от таких традиционных факторов риска, как курение, ожирение, повышение уровня глюкозы в крови. Относительный риск смертности в наиболее загрязненных городах в сравнении с наименее загрязненными составляет 1,26 (95 % CI 1,08-1,47). Профессиональная экспозиция различными видами химических веществ, загрязняющих воздух, может обусловливать более 1 млн преждевременных смертей в мире, но её вклад в сердечно-сосудистую заболеваемость еще недостаточно определен. Химический состав загрязнителей атмосферного воздуха достаточно разнороден и включает в себя как твердые частицы (particulate matter - PM), так и газообразные вещества. Американская ассоциация сердца и Европейское кардиологическое общество определяют PM2.5 как фактор риска сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний. В аналитическом обзоре представлены данные о влиянии аэрогенных поллютантов на развитие кардиометаболической патологии и смертность населения от сердечно-сосудистых и метаболических заболеваний (артериальная гипертензия, атеросклероз и ишемическая болезнь сердца, нарушения ритма сердца, сахарный диабет 2-го типа). Представлены данные о патогенетических механизмах влияния аэрогенных поллютантов на развитие этой группы заболеваний: генерация провоспалительных и оксидативных медиаторов и выброс их в системный кровоток; развитие дисбаланса автономной нервной системы с преобладанием активности симпатической нервной системы и нарушением вариабельности ритма сердца; непосредственное поступление поллютантов из легочной ткани в системный кровоток с развитием прямого токсического воздействия. Проведен анализ литературных данных о протективных эффектах в отношении сердечно-сосудистой патологии при снижении загрязнения воздушной среды.

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Аэрогенные поллютанты, взвешенные в воздухе частицы, стойкие органические поллютанты, сердечно-сосудистая патология

Короткий адрес: https://readera.org/142231447

IDR: 142231447   |   DOI: 10.21668/health.risk/2021.4.20

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