Thermodynamics of phase equilibrium in solid-liquid and solid-gas systems

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The thermodynamic equilibrium of a two-phase system is described by the Gibbs equation, which includes state parameters. On the basis of the Gibbs equation and the combined equation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic potentials are written: internal energy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy. If the two phases are in equilibrium, then the temperatures, pressures and chemical potentials of these phases are equal to each other. Equalities express the conditions of thermal and mechanical equilibrium, as well as the condition for the absence of a driving force for the transfer of a component across the interface. For a two-phase system, the Gibbs-Duhem equation connects the volume and entropy of 1 mole of the mixture, the content of any component, expressed in mole fractions. Extraction from lupine particles with cheese whey (solid-liquid system) is considered. The driving force of the extraction process in the solid-liquid system is the difference between the concentration of the solvent at the surface of the solid C and its average concentration C0 in the bulk of the solution. The concentration at the interface is usually taken to be equal to the concentration of a saturated solution of Cn, since equilibrium is established rather quickly near the surface of a solid. Then the driving force of the process is expressed as Cn - C0. A curve for the extraction of extractives from lupine with cheese whey was plotted by superimposing low-frequency mechanical vibrations.


Equilibrium, phase stability, thermodynamic potentials, driving forces, extraction, drying

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IDR: 140257338   |   DOI: 10.20914/2310-1202-2021-1-30-35

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