Institution of village police constables: personnel, functions, professional training

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Introduction. The paper discuses the creation of the institution of village police constables as a temporary measure in the policy of the crown authorities related to the restructuring of the rural police in the changing socio-political conditions of the country. The focus is made on the legal basis for recruitment, performance of functional duties, and the practice of professional training of persons holding the position of a village police constable. Materials and Methods. The following methods were employed: systematic, historical and comparative methods of analyzing documents (legislative acts, scientific literature, published statistical, reference and Internet materials). Results and Discussion. The Provisional Regulation on village police constables of 1878 was the legal basis for the functioning of the Institute of village police constables during the bourgeois reforms in Russia. The introduction of the Institute of village police constables was aimed at improving the effectiveness of the lower ranks of the rural police. «Temporary status» defined only the main purpose of this institution, and gave the Ministry of Internal Affairs the right to determine the functional duties of the village police constables. The updated system, the increased requirements of society and government to the professional qualities of police officers, the opening of schools for village police constables contributed to institutional strengthening of the fragmented staff, the increased professional competence of rural police, its professionalization. Village police constables of the 1878 model had existed until March 11, 1917, due to the abolition of the tsarist police by the Provisional government. Conclusions. The main prerequisites for the «temporary» introduction of the Institution of village police constables, associated with the death of the Institute of sotniks and desyatniks in the 60s and 70s of the 19th century are established. The legal basis of organizational and personnel support of the County police by lower Executive ranks is highlighted. The article analyzes some approaches of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in improving the professional competence of village police constables, also through the system of village police constables' schools formed in the 1880s-90s.

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Temporary regulations, instructions, crown authority, police reform, village police constable, desyatniks, sotniks

Короткий адрес: https://readera.org/149125094

IDR: 149125094   |   DOI: 10.24411/1999-6241-2020-13016

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