Global experience. Рубрика в журнале - Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast

Публикации в рубрике (7): Global experience
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Assessing the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Economies of China and Russia

Assessing the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Economies of China and Russia

Li Zhimeng, Lukin E.V., Sheng Fangfu, Zeng Wenkai

Статья научная

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected economic development in countries around the world. It aggravated existing problems and increased the demand for economic transformation, modernization and qualitative development, triggered a new technological reform, which led to the emergence of new economic business forms and new consumption. The article assesses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economies of China and Russia. To achieve this goal, we review the state of business activity in the manufacturing and non-manufacturing sectors of the national economy, and summarize the main measures of the anti-pandemic policy implemented by the Chinese and Russian governments. We look into the dynamics of functioning of offline economic spheres that are aimed at personal communication (tourism, catering, retail, transport, culture, entertainment), as well as online spheres implying human-computer interaction (electronic retailing, express delivery, remote work, telemedicine) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We make conclude that the extent of COVID-19 impact on the economy depends on the effectiveness of measures for its prevention and control. We are convinced that at the moment it is necessary to correlate these measures with economic and social development policies, and take into consideration increased consumption as an important aspect of mitigating the effects of COVID-19, accelerate the transformation and modernization of traditional industries, actively develop new economic business forms and build a more open monetary circulation both within the country and globally, thus enhancing the role of the state in global supply chains.

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Current stage of international cooperation in the Arctic: search for answers to the challenges of economic development

Current stage of international cooperation in the Arctic: search for answers to the challenges of economic development

Lipina Svetlana A., Fadeev Aleksei M., Zaikov Konstantin S., Lipina Aleksandra V., Kondratov Nikolai А.

Статья научная

The transformations in the natural and socio-economic environment occurring in the Far North and the Arctic put forward the problem of regional sustainable development. This makes it necessary to address the task of finding strategic approaches to the management of the nonstandard Arctic region, considering the national interests of many states, including the Russian Federation, which dominates territorially in this region. Taking into account the size of the Arctic space and the extreme conditions of economic management, it seems relevant to comprehend the experience of international cooperation in the Arctic and analyze its use for socio-economic development in the entire Arctic region. The aim of the article is to analyze the current stage of international cooperation so as to find answers to the challenges of socio-economic development of the Arctic region. To achieve the goal, we have analyzed the state policy features of the Arctic states based on strategic planning, thus the northern states are able to adapt to the changing natural, socio-economic and geopolitical conditions. We considered approaches in the implementation of projects to develop mineral deposits on the continental shelf of the Arctic Ocean. With the support of international cooperation we give examples of nature management aimed at harmonization of economic interests of business entities and the need to preserve the environment quality in the Arctic. The scientific novelty consists in the critical analysis of the international cooperation features in the Arctic and its readiness to participate in overcoming the new challenges of the Arctic development. The practical relevance of the study lies in the fact that its findings can be used in the educational process in universities, as well as at the state level by executive and legislative authorities in the development and implementation of state policy in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, considering the features of international cooperation.

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Impairment of assets of the issuers in the condition of economic crisis - evidence from the Warsaw stock exchange

Impairment of assets of the issuers in the condition of economic crisis - evidence from the Warsaw stock exchange

Lisicki Bartlomiej

Статья научная

The main goal of this paper is to examine the impact of on the performed impairment of assets on the market valuation of companies listed on Warsaw Stock Exchange in the conditions of an economic crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. The research undertaken in the project helps recognize the correct behaviour (in the short term) of the issuers' shares in a period of uncertainty and increased volatility of securities prices on capital markets. To this purpose, was adopted a research hypothesis indicating that disclosure of information about the impairment of the company's assets results in negative abnormal returns of their share prices, which was dominant position in the research of previous authors. The research undertaken in the article helps identify the rules of behaviour whether the reaction of investors on updating the company's assets in crisis conditions is different than in times of prosperity. The main hypothesis will be verified using the event study methodology. The author intends to verify whether the level of abnormal returns occurring on the days adjacent to the announcement regarding impairment of assets is significantly different from the average level. The subject of the article will be all reports on impairment of assets submitted by 140 biggest issuers listed on the main trading floor in WSE during the Covid-19 pandemic (year 2020). The effect of the article will be interpretation of certain relationships that characterize the stock exchange in Poland as well as an indication of the importance of the occurrence of impairment of issuers' assets for their share prices in economic crisis situation.

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Social and psychological support of couples in treating infertility (case study of the polish research)

Social and psychological support of couples in treating infertility (case study of the polish research)

Suchocka Lilia, Pasek Magorzata, Blicharz Magdalena, Leonidova Galina V.

Статья научная

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 60-80 million couples worldwide struggle with infertility - inability to conceive a child without medical assistance. Infertility is a relevant medical, social, socio-psychological, and demographic problem that negatively affects the demographic situation across the world. In this regard, assisted reproductive technologies help. Infertility diagnosis and treatment is a lengthy and burdensome process, and patients need socio-psychological support while going through it. The purpose of the study is to analyze the situation with the treatment of infertile couples using assisted reproductive technologies in the Republic of Poland and the Russian Federation in the context of the perception of socio-psychological support provided to couples (case study of the Polish research). We used sociological methods: in particular, the author’s own questionnaire and R. Schwarzer and U. Schulz’s test psychological methodology for assessing a respondent’s subjective perception of socio-psychological support. The study involved 39 couples treated for infertility. The majority of respondents (27 couples; 69%) were married. Most female (32 women; 82%) and male (31 men; 79%) respondents did not have children. The results showed that women need more support than men: women received more statistically significant points on the “support-seeking” scale. According to the study, support of a family and a partner were assessed highly. It was revealed that social and psychological support during infertility leads to a positive effect that provides acceptance of the disease (infertility) and reduces stress and a feeling of a loss. Moreover, social and psychological support has a significant impact on the prevention of mental disorders among people treated for infertility. We conclude that socio-psychological support is important for patients diagnosed with this problem.

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Socio-demographic characteristics and quality of employment of platform workers in Russia and the world

Socio-demographic characteristics and quality of employment of platform workers in Russia and the world

Chernykh Ekaterina A.

Статья научная

Digitalization of all spheres of life, technological, demographic, social, and other development drivers of the world contribute to the growing scale and depth of platform employment spread. Emergence of digital platforms was a major challenge for organizing and structuring the labor market. Platforms change not only existing business-paradigms, but the employment model. Platform employment in fact becomes a new institutional mechanism on the labor market. We used general scientific methods in the research: system analysis, comparison, description, generalization, systematization, formalization, and special methods - source analysis, SWOT-analysis, expert evaluation method, etc. The purpose of the research is to select and study socio-demographic features of platform workers in Russia and in the world, to compare them and reveal impact of these features on quality and stability of employment among platform workers. The article analyzes, systematizes, and sums up the results of recent European and American studies on socio-demographic features of platform workers. We attempt to assess similar characteristics among Russian workers (freelancers) analyzing sociological surveys and interviews. The author reveals primary signs of this employment type and their impact on quality of workers’ labor, compare the features of Russian and foreign platform workers, and conclude that pros and cons of platform workers are unevenly distributed, and experience of platform workers is polarized. It creates real problems for some workers and provides opportunities for others. Moreover, we designate risks of platform employment, which is a consequence of its instability, and propose areas for further studies.

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The effectiveness of the authorities' activities at the local level in the COVID-19 pandemic (the experience of Russia and China)

The effectiveness of the authorities' activities at the local level in the COVID-19 pandemic (the experience of Russia and China)

Yi Waigeng, Morev Mikhail V., Ukhanova Yuliya V., Kosygina Kseniya E.

Статья научная

The qualitative changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic at all levels of the organization of the world community (individual, group, national, global) have actually formed a new social reality. Moreover, this process was of a force majeure nature; it took place in the conditions of a sharp increase in the uncertainty feeling, changes in the lifestyle of almost every person and every particular family, the unpreparedness of world medicine for an adequate response to the global epidemiological challenge, as well as the inevitability of large-scale problems in the economy and politics. The current conditions have become a challenge for the existing systems of public administration. The governments of different countries had to act quickly and decisively in order, on the one hand, to keep the development of the epidemiological situation under control, and on the other hand, to prevent a sharp deterioration of social stability against the background of objectively emerging epidemiological, social and psychological challenges. While the world medicine was urgently accelerating the development of a vaccine against coronavirus infection, the scientific and political community discussed the general strategy for implementing quarantine restrictions. However, against this background, the local community level remained virtually behind the scenes, which, nevertheless, was and still remains the most practical in terms of interaction of population with the authorities. It is at the local level (meaning the regional level, as well as the level of local selfgovernment) that the authorities are more close to the society problems, have the opportunity to interact face-to-face with its representatives, and the population, in turn, can actually participate in activities to improve living conditions (including solving problems caused by the pandemic). The article presents the experience of Russia and China in organizing interaction and evaluating the activities of local authorities by the population. Both countries have shown high efficiency in overcoming the crisis in 2020-2021, so their experience is of considerable interest, primarily in practical terms. The authors of the study have concluded about the importance of public assessment regarding the effectiveness of the activities of local authorities, as well as the prospects for actively involving citizens in solving problems arising against the background of force majeure.

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The institutional aspect of German family policy: lessons for Russia in the context of national projects

The institutional aspect of German family policy: lessons for Russia in the context of national projects

Kapoguzov Evgeny A., Chupin Roman I., Kharlamova Maria S.

Статья научная

Breaking out of a demographic trap is a priority of national policy in Russia. To achieve this goal, the national project “Demography” was adopted. The purpose of our study is to review current trends in European family policy in the case of Germany and to identify opportunities for applying foreign experience in improving the provision of institutional support to family policy in the Russian Federation. In our work, we use methods of institutional and statistical analysis. Unlike the studies of other authors, our own assessment of the effectiveness and sufficiency of expensive measures being developed in Russia is based on an institutional analysis that we conduct so as to reveal trends in European family policy on the example of Germany, which is characterized by an institutional logic of family policy similar to Russia. Family policy in Germany is based on increasing public spending on the creation of a developed system of social infrastructure. Both countries focus on increasing the birth rate and the development of social infrastructure that allows women not to abandon their career; but it is assumed that for Russia, the relevant implications will be more significant. As a result of accelerated construction of kindergartens in major agglomerations of Germany, an increase in the birth rate is demonstrated. However, this effect is mostly caused by the migration wave of 2015, while immigrants are insensitive to the measures being implemented. In addition, this leads to an outflow of population from other regions. The significance of the article lies in the fact that the consideration of the contradictions between various courses of family policy in Germany over the past 20 years has revealed the possibilities of using foreign experience in improving the institutional support of family policy in Russia. Based on the analysis we carried out, and taking into consideration the experience of Germany, we propose recommendations in the field of socioeconomic policy that can specify the parameters of the national project “Demography” in terms of taking into account regional demographic situation.

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