Social and economic development. Рубрика в журнале - Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast

Публикации в рубрике (21): Social and economic development
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Acceleration programs in the ecosystem of social entrepreneurship support

Acceleration programs in the ecosystem of social entrepreneurship support

Starshinova Alevtina V., Chikova Evgeniya V.

Статья научная

The development of social entrepreneurship in Russia belongs to the topical areas of state policy and is aimed at creating conditions for the formation of the social services market, the participants of which, along with government agencies and non-profit organizations, become social enterprises. Social accelerators are a new tool for their development that requires systemic understanding. The article reveals the role of acceleration programs in the emerging ecosystem of social entrepreneurship support institutions initiated by the state, shows their common and specific features. The empirical basis of the study was formed by the data posted on the websites of Russian foundations supporting social entrepreneurship. We consider the general scheme of acceleration programs of the Social Projects Support Fund, Social Investment Fund, The Foundation of regional social programs “Our Future” and RAISE University Accelerator (RANEPA), including an analysis of the basic events organized for the participants of accelerators. This article presents systematized data on such interrelated elements of social acceleration as training, mentoring, partner and client networking, local community of social entrepreneurs, direct and indirect funding, and information support. The programs we analyzed followed the same pattern. They include a set of segments, each with a specific function for the development of promising social enterprises. We have identified the problems of exaggerated selection criteria for the acceleration cycle, the lack of direct financing as an element of Russian acceleration programs, which reduces the potential for participation of interested target groups, and weak information support for existing programs. Thus, the results of this study contribute to the study of the strategic advantages and limitations of social acceleration.

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Actors of rural autonomous household: meanings and results

Actors of rural autonomous household: meanings and results

Velikii Petr P., Velikaya Nataliya M.

Статья научная

The article examines the main areas of life of self-employed in agriculture from the position of the meanings of life, defined as the goals - principles of life activity. The self-employed include those heads of households who, having passed the initial adjustment and relying on their human potential, use the reserves of new household forms in the local environment, having partially or completely terminated their labor relations with an agricultural enterprise. They have no farm land, they do not have the status of farmers, nevertheless they live and operate according to similar technology. In terms of material wellbeing they surpass their fellow villagers, who are limited to work in an agricultural enterprise. In the context of free employment choice, these actors adhere to certain attitudes and guidelines, conforming (with varying degrees of completeness) to the norms and requirements of the institutions surrounding them. We have described the problems that arise in families whose lifestyle is determined by the objects of their household - plant and animal life. On the basis of our research we have defined the contours of the self-employment actors' creativity and the opportunity limitations of implementing the meanings of household, which is explained by the violation of conjugations in interaction with large agricultural entities, destruction of connections and relations in the production and sale of products. We have found that depending on the changes in a family life, with the transformation of such indicators as age, health, achievement of ultimate goals (for example, the completion of children's education in universities or, on the contrary, their return to the village), the head and family members constantly cross the formal and essential boundaries of the pre-established status, the scale of activity and, in general, the space mastered and not mastered by them. The study of the social experience of autonomous family household contributes to a deeper comprehensive understanding of the deployment of modernization in the village in the context of the conjunction of innovative and traditional trends.

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Cluster analysis of the dynamics of the birth rate of fourth and subsequent children in Russian regions

Cluster analysis of the dynamics of the birth rate of fourth and subsequent children in Russian regions

Kostina Svetlana N., Trynov Aleksandr V.

Статья научная

The article presents results of the research in the differentiation of Russian subjects by birth rate of fourth and subsequent children, depending on the region's socio-economic development level for the period of 2005-2017. The authors conduct cluster analysis based on Ward's method of time series of 3 groups of indicators, particularly demographic, economic and social, in the regional context. As a result, they identify 6 clusters, describing the situation of Russian subjects, depending on the values of the birth rate of fourth and subsequent children and indicators of socio-economic development of the region for 2005-2017. The study reveals that in the period under review there are two main trends: first, transition of RF subjects from Cluster 1, characterized by sufficiently high values of the birth rate of fourth and subsequent children and low indicators of socio-economic development, to the clusters with a lower value of the coefficient and higher indicators of socio-economic development; second, transition of RF subjects from the clusters with a low birth rate of fourth and subsequent children to the clusters characterized by the increased birth rate against the background of improved socio-economic development. In the current period, it is possible to distinguish the formation of two poles of large families - these are “the poor with many children” regions, in which a high birth rate of fourth and subsequent children is associated with low socio-economic development, and “the rich with many children” regions with high birth rates and a high level of socio-economic development. Between them there are other RF subjects, which are gradually moving away from the pole of “the poor with many children”, but have not approached the pole of “the rich with many children” yet. The novelty of the study lies in the application of the author's approach to the analysis of relationship between large families and socio-economic development of Russian regions in the temporal dimension.

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Differences in Fertility and Reproductive Behavior Indicators

Differences in Fertility and Reproductive Behavior Indicators

Arkhangel’skii V.N., Kalachikova O.N.

Статья научная

The search for the reasons that determine birth rate dynamics remains relevant from the practical and theoretical viewpoints. The aim of our research is to assess whether Russia’s population complies with the stable population model in terms of stability of sex structure. We make an attempt to calculate and assess reproduction indicators for male population. Having revealed that such calculations have methodological limitations, we propose a way to overcome them. According to calculations, in 2019 in Russia, the total fertility rate for women (1.504) was 9.1% higher than for men (1.378). The difference in the gross reproduction rate was 3.1% (0.730 for women and 0.708 for men), in the net reproduction rate – 6.0% (0.719 for women, 0.678 for men). The difference in the value of the rate of natural increase in women and men is 5.0% (-11.5 and -12.1%, respectively). Due to the presence of two quantitatively different reproduction modes in the female and male generations, we doubt it would be possible to implement a stable population model. The age-related model of fertility in men, as well as in women, is shifting toward older ages (in the groups aged 25–29 and 30–34). The average age when men become fathers has also increased: from 31.51 years in 2011 to 32.40 in 2019. We also analyze the fertility rate model according to the age of the mother and father. We have determined that in most cases (70% in 2019) the father is older than the mother, in 19% of cases the mother is older than the father, in 11% – both parents are of the same age. Fathers are 1–4 years older than mothers in 44–64% of cases (depending on the age of the mother). It is noteworthy that the difference in the age of parents is higher when children are born out of wedlock. In the future, we find it interesting to study gender-related differences in reproductive motivation and other determinants of male and female fertility.

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Lifelong learning in Russia as a mechanism for the reproduction of human potential: gender aspect

Lifelong learning in Russia as a mechanism for the reproduction of human potential: gender aspect

Baskakova Marina E., Chubarova Tatyana V.

Статья научная

The article presents a study of the peculiarities of the involvement of Russian men and women in lifelong learning. The analysis of both Russian and foreign studies allowed putting forward the hypothesis that women and men may have different approaches to the construction of a lifelong learning educational path. The purpose of this study is to assess the parameters of women's and men's involvement in lifelong learning, including the goals and sources of funding, in order to identify similarities and gender asymmetry of lifelong learning path in Russia. The data of the sample survey of population involvement in lifelong learning, conducted by Rosstat in 2020, show that women and men's age profiles are similar, but their levels of involvement in different types of lifelong learning are not the same: men participate more actively in non-formal education, and women - in self-education. The current segregation of additional studies for qualification and field generally reflects the existing sectoral and occupational segregation in employment. At the same time, both women and men rarely associate their additional training with the expanded career opportunities, which may indicate the absence of a full-fledged system of vertical professional mobility based on the human potential growth. Our calculations show that employers more often invite men than women to take additional education and, accordingly, women more often than men pay for it themselves. Women with young children experience particular difficulties in participating in non-formal education and more often than others have to pay for themselves. This, in our view, contributes to the formation of gender inequality of opportunities for participation in lifelong learning, which makes it important to consider the gender factor in state programs of lifelong learning development in order to maximize its contribution to the human potential reproduction.

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Limitations of social partnership between authorities and business in forming tourist attractiveness of municipalities of the Russian Federation

Limitations of social partnership between authorities and business in forming tourist attractiveness of municipalities of the Russian Federation

Frolova Elena V., Rogach Olga V., Ryabova Tatyana M., Medvedeva Natalia V.

Статья научная

Social partnership between authorities and business is a strategic factor of a territory’s socio-economic development and increase of the level of competitiveness among local tourist products and services. The purpose of the study is to identify the key limitations in the formation of social partnership between government and business in the context of solving the issues of developing the tourist attractiveness of municipalities of the Russian Federation. The authors used general scientific research methods (generalization, systematization, etc.) and analytical procedures based on comparative and system analysis methods. The key method was a questionnaire survey of experts - heads of municipalities (N = 306). The study was conducted in 2019. As a result of the survey, we identified the key problems of implementing social partnership projects in the tourism sector that do not allow local authorities to form sustainable interaction strategies with business: lack of interest among business, unfavorable investment climate, lack of efficient support for projects in mass media, etc. The authors justified the expediency of using municipal property on the principles of the cooperation economy as a tool for the development of social partnership in the tourism area. By summarizing successful practices of business participation in the development of municipal tourism and analyzing the survey results, we developed the areas for improving activities of local authorities to create conditions for the formation of tourist attractiveness based on social partnership (creation of museum and tourist clusters, branding of the territory, active informational support and popularization of tourist destinations in mass media, organization of project offices for tourism development, etc.). The authors conclude that the institutional environment for the development of social partnership in the tourism area is currently at the formation stage. It requires further study.

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Migration of rural population of the Russian Far East at the beginning of the 21st century

Migration of rural population of the Russian Far East at the beginning of the 21st century

Mishchuk Svetlana N., Ryazantsev Sergei V.

Статья научная

Nearly a quarter of the population of the Far Eastern Federal District, which occupies 40.6% of Russia's area, lives in rural territories. It is obvious that rural population and its migration mobility have territorial differences in such a large region. The purpose of the study is to conduct a spatial and temporal analysis of dynamics and factors of migration processes in rural areas of the Far Eastern Federal District of the Russian Federation. The work is based on the analysis of official statistical data. Since structural characteristics of migration flows are likely to change because of using a new methodology for accounting internal migration since 2011, we consider the period from January 2012 to January 2020. The authors show that migration is crucial for the formation of rural population. At the beginning of 2020, there was an increase in the intensity of migration processes in the district's rural areas, but the population's migration decline remains. Most migrants from rural areas settle in the Far Eastern Federal District - often, in towns. The flow of migrants from the town to the village retains statistical significance but does not correspond to the territorial structure of the migration outflow of rural residents. Based on the ratio of migration and natural population decline (growth), the authors developed a classification of rural areas in the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District for 2011 and 2019. We analyze the reasons for the arrival and departure of rural population. Most migrants arrive after a temporary absence and leave for personal and family reasons. The authors show the influence of the dynamics of migration processes on the development of rural areas and agriculture in the context of a shortage of labor resources and restrictions on international movements of labor immigrants using a case study of the border region.

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Mismatch between the Level of Training of IT Personnel and the Requirements of Employers: Problems and Solutions

Mismatch between the Level of Training of IT Personnel and the Requirements of Employers: Problems and Solutions

Klimova Yu.O., Ustinova K.A.

Статья научная

The availability of qualified IT specialists is an important factor that contributes to the development of the digital economy. The need for personnel training for the IT industry is stated in the national project “Digital economy of the Russian Federation until 2024”. Educational organizations are an important source that supplies IT specialists for the economy. However, today there is an acute problem of inconsistency between the educational system and the labor market. The aim of the study is to identify problems of non-compliance of the level of IT personnel training with the requirements of employers, and to determine ways to address these problems (on the example of the Vologda Oblast). Using the data from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, we analyze the number of graduates in information technology-related fields in the Vologda Oblast. We also review educational programs at universities of the region and reveal problems in the formation of professional competencies in students. Based on the results of a survey conducted in 2020 by VolRC RAS, we have obtained information on the compliance of the level of competencies in graduates of IT specialties with the requirements of employers in the IT industry. In the final part of the article we highlight problems related to personnel training for the IT industry of the region and outline main ways to address them. Scientific novelty of our work consists in the application of a system-wide approach that help us study the viewpoints widespread in the education system and among employers, in order to identify problems related to the training of in-demand personnel for the IT industry. The materials of our study can be used by researchers, postgraduates and students who deal with the issues of digital economy development and those related to the staffing of this industry. Practical significance of our work lies in the fact that our proposals for solving the problems under consideration can be used by federal and regional authorities and management bodies, when it would be necessary to adjust plans for the implementation of national projects “Digital economy” and “Education”; our proposals should also be the basis for goal-setting and reflected in the tasks of other regulatory documents in the field of education at the federal and regional levels.

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Modeling the interrelation between formation factors of labor demand and its supply

Modeling the interrelation between formation factors of labor demand and its supply

Tyrsin Aleksandr N., Vasilyeva Elena V.

Статья научная

The remaining problem of the imbalance on the Russian labor market determines the relevance of studying labor demand and its supply. For this purpose, the objective of identifying the interrelation between the factors of demand and supply formation on the labor market, described using two sets (vectors) of indicators, was set and achieved. The study model also includes labor migration, informal employment, and labor activity of elderly population as factors of labor supply, which ensure that the labor shortage is filled, and the labor market is balanced. The statistical base of the study is 2006-2018 Rosstat data for Russian regions. The results of the study showed that, since 2014, there has been a growing trend in the interconnection between the factors of labor demand and its supply. In difficult macroeconomic conditions, the Russian labor market adapts not by freeing up the labor force, but by expanding labor relation practices (including underemployment of population) while maintaining a low unemployment. Economic decline has led to a reduction in the need for labor, which, on the background of a narrowing supply of labor resources caused by population ageing, has strengthened the balance between supply and demand on the labor market. The growth of partial and part-time employment has become a key process in reconciling the demand for labor and its supply. The inclusion of all factors, studied in this research, in the model allowed us to assess their impact on the balance of labor demand and supply. Employment of population aged 60-72 years was the most significant factor among all supply and demand indicators on the labor market, which indicates a high potential of ensuring their balance.

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Necessity-based and opportunity-based entrepreneurship: socio-demographic features of the employed and their potential realization

Necessity-based and opportunity-based entrepreneurship: socio-demographic features of the employed and their potential realization

Ustinova Kseniya A.

Статья научная

Entrepreneurship is considered as a source of increasing economic competitiveness, emergence of innovations, creation of jobs, and realization of public goals. The article shows that the achievement of economic goals is associated not only with entrepreneurship, but also with its individual types (necessitybased and opportunity-based). The author pays attention to identifying the types of entrepreneurship (necessity-based and opportunity-based), determining socio-demographic features of population involved in these types, how representatives of the selected types of work perception, realize the accumulated potential, what type of earnings they prefer (stable, but low incomes / high incomes, but with no guarantees for the future). Information data of the research is data monitoring of the quality of labor potential of the Vologda Oblast population for 2020. In the course, the work identifies the groups of factors that affect the prevalence of these entrepreneurship types (in one case, it is macroeconomic stability, institutions, infrastructure, etc., in the other - for technological improvement, for higher education, vocational training, and efficient markets). The research reveals common features of necessity-based and opportunity-based entrepreneurs and their differences. The author proves that opportunity-based entrepreneurs perceive their activities to a greater extent from the position of focusing on earning respect and recognition, gaining new knowledge, and realizing their potential. They are more likely to rate their prospects for professional development, career growth and professional improvement higher than other groups of entrepreneurs. The practical significance of the study is to identify groups of opportunitybased and necessity-based entrepreneurs, characteristics peculiar to each of them, and to highlight their common and different features. In turn, the latter creates prerequisites for the authorities in terms of creating conditions for each of the groups of entrepreneurs, determining the most effective and successful incentives for activating their potential.

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Open and Latent Unemployment in the Context of the Pandemic

Open and Latent Unemployment in the Context of the Pandemic

Soboleva I.V., Sobolev E.N.

Статья научная

The specifics of the pandemic crisis and the features of the Russian labor model suggest that the impact of this crisis on the labor sphere may differ from the usual implications of crisis-driven recessions in economic activity, and create new points of vulnerability. The aim of this article is to trace changes taking place in the sphere of employment during the pandemic, to reveal how unemployment, including its latent forms, is spreading, and to identify risk areas that should become the focus of public policy. On the basis of available statistics data from Rosstat and independent sociological surveys, we explain significant discrepancies between the dynamics of objective indicators of unemployment and the extent of people’s concerns related to their perception of this problem; we assess the structure of unemployment and the scale and dynamics of its latent component. The study has shown that at the peak of the crisis, latent unemployment exceeded open unemployment by more than three times. Unemployment, either in an open or latent form, has affected every fourth worker. Nevertheless, in general, in terms of the dynamics of macroeconomic proportions, the labor sphere is coping with the challenges of the crisis: the sector of large and medium-sized enterprises managed to maintain almost pre-crisis levels of employment, open unemployment remained within socially acceptable limits, a dangerous surge in latent unemployment was overcome by the beginning of the third quarter of 2020. At the same time, serious shifts have taken place in the usual structure of redundancies: highly qualified and educated workers employed in key sectors of intangible production, who felt confident in the labor market and got used to the stability of their socioeconomic situation, have been considerably affected. Geographically, the crisis has had the most serious impact on large cities with a significant amount of middle class population. This aggravated the acuteness of people’s perceptions of the crisis and jeopardized the preservation and reproduction of elite segments of national human potential.

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Preserving children's health: search for the ways of solving relevant issues

Preserving children's health: search for the ways of solving relevant issues

Shabunova Alexandra A., Korolenko Alexandra V., Natsun Leila N., Razvarina Irina N.

Статья научная

Changed social reality, caused by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), made attention to population’s health, its risks, and defining factors relevant. Nowadays, an individual’s personal responsibility for own health and coherence of various social institutions’ activities in the formation of children’s health are of particular importance. The article is devoted to an analysis of children’s health and search for the ways of its improvement. The authors explore the issues of availability and quality of medical services, safeguard of children’s health and discuss the barriers to inter-institutional cooperation in this field, as well as ways of overcoming them. To achieve these objectives, we used quantitative and qualitative sociological methods: a sociological survey of families with children aged 3-17 years, monitoring observation of cohorts of families with children, focus group studies of parents of children aged 3-17 years, an expert survey of specialists of the regional health system and members of government authorities. The authors reveal several issues: decline of children’s health potential in growing; insufficient awareness of parents about the state, forms, and methods of preserving and strengthening children’s health, discrepancy between parents’ ideas about their own competence in this matter with reality; lack of narrow-profile specialists in children’s medical institutions; absence of medical workers among full-time staff of educational organizations; queues and complexity of making appointments with specialists; low availability of free and high cost of paid medical services; insufficient information interaction between medical, educational organizations and parents in the prevention of diseases; lack of parents’ knowledge of full information about objectives of professional examinations and insufficient awareness of the importance of further actions to restore and strengthen health of children. Based on the analysis, we stated the areas of solving these problems. They may include the development and implementation of specific management tools to preserve children’s health potential.

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Reproduction of Human Capital in the Arctic Regions of Russia: Socio-Cultural Context

Reproduction of Human Capital in the Arctic Regions of Russia: Socio-Cultural Context

Markin V.V., Silin A.N., Malinina K.O.

Статья научная

The formation and reproduction of human capital, as the most important prerequisite for modern development, has not only sectoral, but also regional features. The article, which continues a series of our works on human capital in the conditions of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, considers the influence of socio-cultural factors on human capital in the Arctic territories. The aim of the study is to present a new approach to the role of socio-cultural factors (foundations and components) in human capital development in the Arctic regions for a new (neo-industrial) stage of their exploration. In this regard, we clarify conceptual foundations of the studies on human capital presented in the works of researchers from Russia and other countries. Within a certain theoretical and methodological framework, we analyze, compare, and summarize the findings of a sociological study conducted in March – May 2018 in the Arkhangelsk Oblast (in the Arctic territories) and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug; to this end, we use methods such as mass surveys and statistical data analysis. We provide data that characterize human capital of the Northerners in terms of their financial situation; we prove the existence of a direct dependence on regional (higher – in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug), sectoral (especially oil and gas enterprises), socio-professional (especially managers, highly qualified specialists, state and municipal employees) aspects. With the use of multidimensional measurements, we show the interrelations and individual dependencies of the variables that characterize education, health and socio-professional status in the structure of human capital in the surveyed regions. We also focus our attention on the role of value orientations in the formation and reproduction of human capital. In conclusion, we note that the impact of socio-cultural factors on human capital is ambivalent: on the one hand, they act as a fundamental basis, on the other hand, some of them (education, work motivation, etc.) act as structural components. We propose measures aimed at strengthening national and regional policies (including investment) in the development of human capital in the Russian Arctic

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Semantic space of reality: structural taxonomy of the foundations of self-regulation of interactions in the youth environment

Semantic space of reality: structural taxonomy of the foundations of self-regulation of interactions in the youth environment

Zubok Yuliya A., Lyubutov Aleksandr S.

Статья научная

The article provides a conceptual understanding of the semantic space of reality, substantiates its structure and features of its formation in the youth environment. To this end, we consider the process of meaning formation and the content of semantic fields. It is analyzed as the basis for self-regulation of social interactions between young people. Identifying semantic foundations of self-regulation is a relevant research task for both theory and practice. The aim of the study is to identify the structure of relationships and hierarchical clustering of basic elements in the mechanism for self-regulation of social interactions in the youth environment with the help of the structural and taxonomic model. The model was constructed within the framework of the tool for self-regulation of young people's daily life; the tool is being developed at the Center for Youth Sociology, Institute of Socio-Political Research, Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPR FCTAS RAS). The structural and taxonomic approach allows us to obtain structural-taxonomic maps that display multi-layered structures of relationships within the mechanism of self-regulation, as well as connections between different meanings that are reproduced and constructed in the youth environment in the process of everyday interactions. In contrast to the automatic classification as the classical task of taxonomy, the structural and taxonomic approach focuses on identifying the structure of the most significant relationships between the objects being classified; such objects (which are considered in the present paper) are the elements of self-regulation mechanism in the life of young people. We design a structural and taxonomic model using the data of a sociological survey; this allows us to offer reasonable descriptions and explanatory interpretations of the results. The analysis is based on the findings of empirical studies we obtained in the course of a survey of Russian youth 15-29 years of age. We use taxonomic analysis to reveal the structure of the semantic space of young people. We conclude that semantic connections within and between semantic fields are ambiguous. Having implemented structural and taxonomic modeling of the semantic space, we identify several levels of semantic fields. Their analysis allows us to form an idea of the semantic foundations of self-regulation of young people's interactions with each other and with society.

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Smart competencies as a tool for the development of the information culture of society

Smart competencies as a tool for the development of the information culture of society

Babich Lyubov V., Golovchin Maksim A., Mironenko Elena S.

Статья научная

The article considers the process of formation of smart competencies, which have a synergistic nature, as a tool for creating samples of the information society culture. The purpose of the study is to assess the effectiveness of smart competencies formation in a managed (institutionalized) and unmanaged (non-institutionalized) environment. The paper presents a conceptual understanding of smart competencies as the integration of modern basic and flexible skills in the educational profile of a student. We provide the results of a modeling experiment conducted in 2020-2021. The experiment consisted of the identifying, forming, and resulting stage. Seventy-six schoolchildren from Vologda and Staraya Russa participated in each stage. The participants were divided into a control group and experimental groups. In the framework of the experiment, in accordance with the principles proposed in the study, two measurements of smart competencies (initial and control level) were carried out. In the interval between the measurements, a stable level of smart competencies was maintained in the participants. The results of the experiment have revealed considerable opportunities for the formation of smart competencies in a controlled environment in conventional educational conditions. It was in this case that the strategic level of competence development was preserved during the experiment (which was not observed in other groups). In conclusion, we determine which types of information culture are created by smart education. The novelty of the project consists in the proposed original model for the study of smart competencies, which defines the structure and features of this phenomenon. Within the framework of the study, we propose a methodological approach to organizing the process of development of modern competencies in the smart environment, which can be used by educational organizations in Russian regions.

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Social forecasting in the strategic management of the development of higher education in Russia

Social forecasting in the strategic management of the development of higher education in Russia

Lenkov Roman V., Patsula Andrei V.

Статья научная

Social forecasting is directly related to the management of changes in the economy and social sphere, including higher education. The relevance of the study is associated with the analysis of the problem of forecasting indicators of higher education through the prism of the targets of national projects implemented in the context of a prolonged COVID-19 pandemic. The global epidemic aggravates the socio-economic situation in the world community, makes it highly instable and uncertain, thereby increasing the demand for social development forecasts. The purpose of our research is to study the potential of social forecasting in the state strategic management of the development of higher education in Russia. A special task revealing its scientific novelty is to diagnose the problem of measurement and profiling the methodology of reproduction of the “strategic intelligentsia” (elite) as a “transformative” subjectivity. In the study, we rely on the theory of the socio-cultural management model put forward by Professor A.V. Tikhonov, as well as on the authors socioprognostic approach to management, which acts as a special methodological means of scientific search, integrating ideas and theoretical constructs in the field of social sciences and humanities, while substantiating the solutions to promising problems with the use of modern project-based technologies. With the help of these tools, we profile the multivariate levels of scientific foresight and strategic management, analyze the forecasting and regulatory actions of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation as a macroregulator of the functioning and development of higher education, and identify key components in reformatting and optimizing social forecasting in the state strategic management of higher education development. The work is based on the perspective practice of research of manageability of regional development and social group formation, which is in demand by the academic community, acquired by scientists of the Center for Sociology of Management and Social Technologies of the Institute Sociology - Branch of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2015-2020, including that achieved in the study of higher education as a resource for managing the socio-cultural modernization of regions. The materials of the article have theoretical and practical significance; they are intended for specialists in the field of state, regional and municipal management, as well as experts in social forecasting and strategic management of the development of higher education in Russia.

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Social portrait of a resident of the arctic in the conditions of industrial development of the territory (case study of Yakutia and Taimyr)

Social portrait of a resident of the arctic in the conditions of industrial development of the territory (case study of Yakutia and Taimyr)

Potravnaya Evgeniya V., Yashalova Natalya N., Kim Hye-Jin

Статья научная

The way of life of the indigenous and incoming population of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation requires a detailed study, since it is in these areas that the exploration and extraction of minerals for the purpose of territorial industrial development has been actively carried out in recent decades. The article reveals the social portrait of residents of Russia's Arctic regions, who are immediate participants in the changes taking place in the territories of their residence and associated with the implementation of large-scale mining projects. We conducted the empirical part of the study in 2017-2020 in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), where placer gold and diamonds are currently explored and mined, and in the Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets Municipal District of Krasnoyarsk Krai. The object of the study was the economic behavior of local residents of the Arctic regions; the subject was their attitude toward the activities of mining companies. As a result of a sociological survey in the form of questionnaires (cluster sample, 859 people, age selection from 18 years and older), informal conversations with local residents, we gave their socio-demographic characteristics, presented their attitude toward traditional trades and crafts and toward the industrial development of Russia's Arctic regions. The practical significance of the study consists in analyzing modern characteristics of an Arctic resident; this analysis can be of use to various stakeholders involved in the implementation of state programs for the development of Russia's Arctic territories. The study of the problems and needs of indigenous peoples of the Arctic zone of Russia allows avoiding resource conflicts between state structures, industrial companies and the local population.

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The Concept for Corporate Demographic Policy of Russian Enterprises in the Framework of Corporate Social Responsibility

The Concept for Corporate Demographic Policy of Russian Enterprises in the Framework of Corporate Social Responsibility

Rostovskaya T.K., Shabunova A.A., Bagirova A.P.

Статья научная

National priorities in the development of Russian society in the field of demography are related to population reproduction, health preservation, decrease in working-age mortality, increase in life expectancy, etc., and also correlate strategically with the effective functioning of business. This brings to the fore the need to develop, implement and elaborate on corporate social policy in general and corporate demographic policy in particular. The aim of the study is to analyze social policy pursued by major Russian corporations (PAO Severstal, Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel Works PJSC, Gazprom Neft PJSC, PJSC Lukoil, JSC Russian Railways, PJSC PhosAgro, PJSC Acron) and substantiate the concept for corporate demographic policy of enterprises. We consider prerequisites for the establishment and implementation of corporate demographic policy in Russian society. We have found that at the present stage of its development, corporate social responsibility is most often reduced to cash payments and participation of enterprises in individual social projects. The article analyzes social policy practices that Russian companies are implementing and that are directly related to demographic issues (childcare allowances, employee benefits, health resort treatment, etc.). We look into the approaches to understanding corporate demographic policy and its effectiveness; we show the benefits of implementing corporate demographic policy at Russian enterprises. Such benefits include promotion of business reputation, reduction in social tension, participation of enterprises in addressing demographic development issues, etc. According to some studies, the introduction of corporate health promotion programs can reduce disability losses from a number of causes by almost 30%. The practical significance and scientific novelty of our research consists in the development of a concept for corporate demographic policy of Russian enterprises, definition of its targets, implementation mechanisms and substantiation of the expected results, which consist in enhancing the effectiveness of state demographic policy as a whole and improving the results of implementation of corporate programs.

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The diffusion of volunteering abroad and in Russia: cultural foundations, assessment of barriers, intensification technologies

The diffusion of volunteering abroad and in Russia: cultural foundations, assessment of barriers, intensification technologies

Bazueva Elena V., Artamonova Anna S.

Статья научная

The need to integrate volunteering into national strategies for achieving sustainable development goals, and the importance of its role in curbing the implications of crisis processes caused by the coronavirus pandemic have intensified the scientific search for barriers to civic participation in volunteering and mechanisms for eliminating them. At the same time, researchers focus on identifying barriers of a certain type on the example of one country or group of countries, and, when searching for ways to eliminate those barriers, they underestimate the role of national culture. The purpose of our study is to systematize barriers and promising technologies for intensifying the diffusion of volunteering among the population and to identify major features of national culture in this process. Barriers to the diffusion of volunteer activity in society are systematized into three groups: barriers on the part of the state, barriers on the part of the non-profit sector, and barriers on the part of the individual. We show national features of their formation, which proceed from the specifics of emergence and evolution of volunteerism in the course of socioeconomic development. Using the postulates of institutional economic theory, we identify a system of institutions that intensify the diffusion of volunteering in society, including institutions for the promotion of volunteer practices, institutions for the development of civil society, institutions for the development of horizontal ties through network mechanisms for the diffusion of norms of civic participation, institutions for improving the reputation of volunteering among the population, the institute of volunteer education, institutions for increasing the motivation of participation in volunteering. On the basis of econometric analysis, we have determined that the cultural dimensions highlighted by G. Hofstede, such as the level of individualism, femininity and tolerance, have a significant impact on the extent of development of volunteering in the country. Taking into account the identified cultural features and effective technologies that promote residents’ engagement in volunteer activities, we determine directions for intensification of this process in Russia. Development of a comprehensive system of institutions for the diffusion of volunteering in our country will be a promising area for our future research.

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The impact of the pandemic on demographic processes in the Russian Arctic

The impact of the pandemic on demographic processes in the Russian Arctic

Smirnov Andrei V.

Статья научная

Russia has achieved a high level of Internet connectivity and the use of digital technologies; this helps to accumulate and systematize huge amounts of population data. Modern challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, require a more prompt and detailed analysis of the demographic situation. Understanding the information collected by digital platforms and services can improve the quality of decision-making and be widely used in science and management. The aim of our study is to assess the change in the demographic situation in the Russian Arctic under the influence of the pandemic, with the use of new sources of population data that have emerged as a result of digitalization of the economy and public life. The article proposes an outline for the formation of a demographic knowledge base by combining traditional population statistics with data from digital platforms. We consider advantages and disadvantages of new data sources, features and examples of their application. We provide a detailed description of demographic processes in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation in 2020-2021 with the use of municipal statistics, data from Yandex online platforms and international pandemic databases. With the help of the proposed outline, we consider the dynamics of morbidity, mortality and vaccination against coronavirus infection. We study the reaction of the population of the Russian Arctic to the pandemic by analyzing the structure of search queries and the intensity of movement in city streets. We reveal the specifics of the spread of COVID-19 in the Arctic and estimate the impact of the pandemic on the natural population change and human mobility in the Arctic Zone. We calculate excess mortality at the regional and municipal levels. Based on the vaccination rates, we draw conclusions about the prospects for further development of the pandemic. The results obtained can be used for development of socio-demographic policy measures and construction of demographic forecasts for the Northern and Arctic territories.

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