Theoretical and methodological issues. Рубрика в журнале - Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast

Публикации в рубрике (11): Theoretical and methodological issues
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Forming the Practices of Citizens’ Participation in the Development of the Urban Environment: Habitualization or Institutionalization From Above

Forming the Practices of Citizens’ Participation in the Development of the Urban Environment: Habitualization or Institutionalization From Above

Smoleva E.O.

Статья научная

The article presents findings of a sociological research on the process of formation of social practices of citizens’ participation in the development of the urban environment. Creating a new, peoplefriendly urban space involves taking into account the interests of various population groups and working out the mechanisms for citizens’ involvement in urban management. The purpose of the work is to identify main ways for engaging citizens in the development of the urban environment by analyzing the processes of institutionalization. The theoretical and methodological basis of the research includes works devoted to social institutions and institutionalization, social movements as institutionalization agents, the right of citizens to participate in urban development, and the issues of civic participation in designing urban spaces. The analysis has identified main participants (actors) whose interests are affected when the issue concerning the development of the urban environment is formulated and addressed. We consider two processes of formation of the rules according to which the actors perform their functions in public arenas: from below through habitualization or from above as an import of social institutions. We show the differences in the process and results of institutionalization of civic engagement in the presence or absence of a conflict of interests among the main actors: society, government, business community. We compare the processes according to the following parameters: the nature of institutional changes, relations and actions, type of institutional changes, structure of political opportunities, and civic engagement levels. We draw conclusions about how the orientation of the processes affects the nature of civic participation. In particular, the loss of the “partnership” and “delegation of authority” stages in the process of institutionalization from above indicates a formal and imitative nature of the practices of civic participation in urban development. The novelty of the work consists in comparing the oppositely directed processes of institutionalization of civic participation (from below and from above) on the example of a specific sphere such as urban development.

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From a Robinson Crusoe economy to a pure exchange economy

From a Robinson Crusoe economy to a pure exchange economy

Nekipelov Aleksandr D.

Статья научная

The pure exchange model is considered as the first stage of the analysis of a simple exchange economy; at that, the research is based on the patterns of behavior of the “economic man” that were identified while studying the Robinson Crusoe model. The interpretation at this stage of production as an exogenous factor helps to determine in “pure form” the forces leading to the formation of exchange relations, to introduce into analysis and to reveal basic features of the main phenomena and processes in the sphere of circulation. Proceeding from well-known approaches to the impact of redistribution of the initial bundle of goods on the individual well-being of members of society, we pay considerable attention to the difference between the exchange of bundles of goods and the exchange of individual goods, the two possible forms of exchange that implement such redistribution. While studying the market form of exchange, we additionally analyze the known options for achieving general equilibrium - on the basis of equilibrium and a series of non-equilibrium proportions of exchange. We show that due to institutional reasons, competition between the participants of the exchange, as a tool for reducing transaction costs, cannot eliminate the costs completely; therefore, the path of moving toward the contract surface inevitably turns out to be multi-stage, accompanied by the use of non-equilibrium proportions of exchange. But the final (limit) point on this path will necessarily be a point of general equilibrium, and the number of such points that can be reached from the initial position is infinitely large. The latter is explained by the multitude of proportions of exchange that can be used by its participants at each of the nodal points of the path. The paper develops our viewpoint formulated in an earlier publication: the possibility of introducing credit relations into the analysis at this stage is associated with the existence of consumer goods of long-term use. At the same time, only the goods of long-term use can serve as the object of the credit and it is impossible to single out an "interest rate component" in the supplies that ensure the repayment of the credit.

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Health-saving attitudes as a factor promoting self-preservation behavior: approaches to the study and experience in typology

Health-saving attitudes as a factor promoting self-preservation behavior: approaches to the study and experience in typology

Korolenko Aleksandra V.

Статья научная

Under the conditions of conceptual transition of public health policy from considering citizens as passive consumers of medical services to their awareness of their own active position in health preservation, it becomes fundamentally important to understand the types of health care attitudes of the population. The aim of the study was to make a typology of the population according to the nature of health-saving attitudes and to study its influence on the dissemination of healthy lifestyle practices. We have analyzed and summarized approaches to the interpretation of health-saving motivation and classification of health care motives. We reviewed the experience of applying cluster analysis in studies of health behavior. We found that most of them use self-preservation practices as indicators for typology, while the equally important value-motivational component is most often left out of sight. Our study is designed to fill this gap. The results of the sociological monitoring of the physical health of the Vologda Oblast population in 2020 served as the information base. The motives of health care were considered in inseparable interrelation with the degree of health care and responsibility for it. We used the cluster analysis method (hierarchical and k-means method) to make a typology of the population. In the course of clustering we identified three groups of population according to the nature of health saving attitudes: 1) responsible, but unmotivated, caring little or no concern for health, 2) sharing responsibility, motivated and caring for health, 3) responsible, motivated and caring for health. We defined a socio-demographic portrait of representatives of each cluster. Representatives of the third cluster lead the healthiest way of life, while more than half of the respondents of the first cluster do not take any measures in relation to health. The results of the study have an explicit practical value in terms of managing self-preservation behavior.

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Investment activity in the Russian economy: activation problems and directions

Investment activity in the Russian economy: activation problems and directions

Shulepov Evgenii B., Zadumkin Konstantin A., Rumyantsev Nikita M., Lukin Evgenii B.

Статья научная

The big challenges facing Russia require ensuring high-quality economic growth which makes it necessary to search for investment resources. However, financial crises, foreign policy pressure, coupled with the export-raw materials model of the Russian economy, do not allow achieving necessary growth investment rates in fixed assets. The purpose of the research is to find and scientifically substantiate ways to enhance investment activity in the Russian Federation. For this purpose, the authors have evaluated parameters of investment activity, have analyzed the sources of financial resources for investment, and have developed specific recommendations to increase investment activity in the Russian economy. The results of the study revealed a number of problems: strengthening of sectoral and territorial disparities, growing dependence on imports of investment goods, deterioration of technological development parameters, reduction of the share of Research and Development and Research and Technological Development in GDP, and reduction of debt financing opportunities. As ways to boost investment activity, the authors propose monetary policy adjustments, expansion of fiscal and tax incentives to support investment and RTD, and development of value chains aimed at smoothing resource allocation imbalances including investment ones. The scientific novelty of the research is in development applied directions for increasing investment activity in the modern Russian economy. The methodological basis is the theory of social reproduction and national accounting. The information base of the research consists of statistical data and materials of the Federal State Statistics Service, the Unified Interdepartmental Information and Statistical Service, input-output tables, the Bank of Russia, the Higher School of Economics, normative legal acts and program documents of the Russian Federation and its subjects, publications of Russian and foreign authors in various periodicals, monographs. Further scientific research will be related to the study of institutional factors of investment activity activation and forecasting the results of implementing the proposed recommendations.

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Modeling socio-demographic asymmetry of territorial development

Modeling socio-demographic asymmetry of territorial development

Makarova Mariya N.

Статья научная

The article explores the issues of modeling socio-demographic asymmetry using spatial econometrics. Its relevance is associated with the growing disproportions of demographic dynamics in the regional space that undoubtedly requires scientific understanding and development of appropriate management decisions. The purpose of this study is to substantiate the methodological provisions for modeling the socio-demographic asymmetry of territorial development using a case-study of a specific region. Based on an analysis of domestic and foreign publications on the study of the territorial development asymmetry, including socio-demographic one, the author proposes a typology of methodological approaches and methods of its modeling and evaluation and substantiates the need to use spatial econometrics methods, the advantage of which is not only an opportunity to assess the presence of the asymmetry phenomenon, but also to determine the links between studied territorial entities and evaluate their mutual influence in the conditions of uneven development of regional space. The calculation of Moran’s global and local indices using a case study of the Sverdlovsk Oblast’s settlement system allowed us to obtain the following results: (1) the presence of socio-demographic asymmetry in the form of spatial autocorrelation of the population indicators of the region’s municipalities was confirmed; (2)a typology of municipalities is proposed according to their contribution to the formation of socio-demographic asymmetry, which allowed us to determine the points of agglomeration attraction, as well as to show the presence of direct and inverse spatial relationships between the region’s key territories; (3) the author substantiates the trend of increasing socio-demographic asymmetry in the region as a result of the increasing role of the Yekaterinburg agglomeration and the decline in the value of other two attraction points in the settlement system. The results obtained can be used by interested specialists to justify measures to regulate the socio-demographic and spatial development of the region by using positive and leveling negative effects of the socio-demographic asymmetry.

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Models for the dynamics of demographic indicators in the conditions of population adaptation to changes in the socio-economic environment

Models for the dynamics of demographic indicators in the conditions of population adaptation to changes in the socio-economic environment

Kozlova Olga A., Makarova Mariya N., Sekitski-pavlenko Olga O.

Статья научная

Socio-economic development of any territory is inherently connected with population reproduction, which is predetermined by demographic behavior. Recently, the models for the dynamics of Russia's demographic indicators have been changing, which is characterized by a decrease in the birth and death rates, as well as a relative stabilization of the migration situation. The transformation of demographic dynamics models is a natural result of society's adaptation to the new socio-economic reality. The changes in the behavior of the population are particularly noticeable under the conditions of abrupt transformations of the external environment, observed in the transitional periods of socioeconomic systems functioning. In this regard, the purpose of the study was to determine the main models of the dynamics of demographic indicators of the Russian Federation at the present stage of development, which is characterized by a rapid change in the conditions of life activity. Based on the use of the concept of adaptation in the “human-environment” coordinates, we showed the two-dimensional adaptation of the population to changes in the external environment and constructed a decision-tree for the acts of demographic behavior. In empirical part of the study, using methods of logical and statistical analysis, we studied the dynamics of indicators of reproductive, self-preservation and migration behavior of the population in the period from 2000 to 2019, using, respectively, a set of indicators of birth rate, mortality, life expectancy and migration growth. Based on highlighting the specific characteristics of Russia's socio-economic development in 2000-2006, 2007-2015, and 2016-2019, we identified three stages of demographic indicators dynamics, in accordance with which we proposed three models of demographic indicators dynamics, in order to expand our understanding of this phenomenon. The results obtained allowed us to form a methodological basis for future interdisciplinary research in the field of demographic behavior. They can also be used as a methodological basis for the development of demographic policy measures.

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Polycausal concept of social evolution

Polycausal concept of social evolution

Balatsky Evgeny V.

Статья научная

The article puts forward a polycausal concept of social evolution (PCSE) based on taking into consideration the structure of the competition mechanism. The novelty of the PCSE lies in the simultaneous consideration of a set of interrelated variables of the competition mechanism that exclude the establishment of simple cause-and-effect relationships typical of monocausal theoretical constructions. A structural scheme of the PCSE includes the subject, object, environment and the process of competition; all of them are directly associated with such civilizational phenomena as technology, institutions, culture and ecosystem; together, these variables determine the nature of economic growth and the type of capitalist (market) relations. This approach can be called a method of structural (organizational) competition. To illustrate the PCSE and test its explanatory capabilities, we look for answers to the following classic questions: Why has human civilization matured in Eurasia rather than in other continents? How did humanity manage to break out of the Malthusian trap? How can we explain the Needham Puzzle? Why are some countries and peoples rich, while others are poor? Why do some poor countries and peoples manage to catch up with rich ones, while others do not? How can we explain the “case of the USSR”? The proposed PCSE is used to reconstruct key events in the history of human civilization. For this purpose, we put forward a structural outline of social evolution, which includes basic principles and mechanisms that determine certain results of the development of human societies. In conclusion, we make an attempt to use the PCSE to designate reference points of a modern civilizational crisis.

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Self-Preservation Behavior: Generational Aspect

Self-Preservation Behavior: Generational Aspect

Popova L.А., Milaeva Т.V., Zorina Е.N.

Статья научная

The purpose of the research is to identify features of self-preservation behavior in different actual generations of Russians to assess the vector of their transformation and the prospects for life expectancy dynamics. The relevance of the topic is determined by the significant lag between Russia and developed countries in terms of life expectancy, largely due to behavioral factors. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that we can adapt the Strauss-Howe generational theory to study generational characteristics of population behavior related to health. By the results of a sociological survey, we have verified the hypotheses about the nature of self-preservation behavior models of five ten-year-old actual cohorts of the population and the combined generation born before 1955 inclusive. Regarding the ratio of self-preservation behavior models of the two oldest cohorts, the paper does not confirm the formulated hypothesis, which may be due to the positive transformation of health-preservation behavior models as people became older, due to changes in health status, as well as in the population of the older cohorts due to high premature mortality in groups with the most unfavorable lifestyle. Regarding four young actual generations, the study has confirmed the hypotheses showing that favorable socio-economic and demographic conditions, anti-alcohol and anti-smoking measures of the 2000s and promotion of an active healthy lifestyle in general have a positive effect in terms of influencing the nature of self-preservation behavior of young cohorts, which indicates the possibility of influencing behavioral health factors at the stage of its formation. The positive vector of transformation of generational patterns of self-preserving behavior, especially clearly manifested in men, allows us to hope for the restoration and prolongation of the growing dynamics of the life expectancy of Russians with the probability of achieving targets in the future, provided that favorable behavioral patterns in the field of health conservation are consolidated.

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Socio-economic studies and political aspects of developing the northern region (to the centenary of the Komi Republic) relations in various regions is gaining significant importance that is recommended to consider in the entire problematics of research of the national and world economy

Socio-economic studies and political aspects of developing the northern region (to the centenary of the Komi Republic) relations in various regions is gaining significant importance that is recommended to consider in the entire problematics of research of the national and world economy

Lazhentsev Vitalii N.

Статья научная

In this work, we show the formation and development of socio-economic studies in the northern periphery. The authors reflect the role of economic science and regional management in the development of territories with difficult natural conditions. During the time of capitalist colonization, socialist planned economy, revolutionary reform and the formation of market relations, scientific recommendations, regarding the forms of organizing production and improving the economic mechanism by the authorities, as a rule, were not received properly and on time. Nevertheless, as shown in the article, all scientific concepts and theories, despite a delay, somehow influenced (and are influencing) vital activity of the population of distant regions, but especially it influences the theory of initial capital accumulation, socialist accumulation, mobilization economy, regional organization of productive forces, economic federalism, a variety of forms of ownership and mixed economy, territorial management. Science forms the theoretical basis for objectively determined social transformations, which serves as a reference point for the accelerated development of productive forces and the growth of people's well-being. However, political activity often ends up in completely opposite positions, preferring to break existing economic relations to the detriment of public interests. On the other hand, the very socio-economic reality and various circumstances of life suggest the need to introduce new theoretical propositions into science, corresponding to the cyclical nature of the market economy, the diversity of its forms, and extreme political and economic situations. At the same time, the experience of the formation of economic

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The concept of comprehensive income in the economic theory of the state

The concept of comprehensive income in the economic theory of the state

Rubinstein Alexander Ya.

Статья научная

The article presents a concept of the comprehensive income of producers of patronized goods; the concept helped to determine the economic content of the term “budget subsidy”, which in the Russian tradition is unreasonably interpreted as gratuitous aid from a paternalistic state. We substantiate this concept and the economic meaning of budget subsidy on the basis of a modified model of the Wicksell- Lindahl equilibrium as applied to patronized goods, the distinctive feature of which consists in their ability to satisfy the interests of individuals and the government that acts on behalf of society. We prove that such a modification of the equilibrium model is based on the use of the marginal utility theory in relation to the key term in the theory of patronized goods: public interest that is not reduced to individual preferences. Such an interpretation required that the absolutization of the marginalist principle of subjectivism based on “methodological individualism” should be abandoned. The presence of a public interest that is not reduced to individual preferences, and therefore the presence of the social utility function of the paternalistic state, fundamentally changes the content of the equilibrium. This approach resulted in the development of the concept of comprehensive income, which is defined as the sum of income from market sales and budget subsidies, deflated by different price indices. In order to summarize components of comprehensive income, we present our own methodology for constructing a “composite price index”. The normative model for budget subsidy based on the assessment of the social utility of patronized goods is the most important practical result of our work. With regard to its normative nature, the article presents a theoretical substantiation of the three normative conditions and derives the corresponding equations for model calculations of the budget subsidy value, tested on the example of national and municipal theaters using actual departmental statistics for the period from 2009 to 2019.

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“Black swans” and social institutions

“Black swans” and social institutions

Dementiev Victor E.

Статья научная

The paper considers the COVID-19 pandemic as a manifestation of an upward trend in various kinds of risks on the path of social development. Promoting the adaptive abilities of socio-economic systems becomes an urgent task. We propose to use the experience of various countries in combating the pandemic to analyze the conditions that help to respond effectively to various unforeseen challenges, which are often referred to as “black swans” in modern literature. We present a brief review of the literature that analyzes the differences between countries, which affect their economic development amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. We prove that, contrary to popular belief, the continued growth of GDP can be combined with relatively low COVID-19 mortality rates. This conclusion is based on data from 30 countries for the year 2020. We note that the share of the service sector in the economy has a significant impact on the dynamics of GDP in the context of the pandemic. We focus on the relationship between changes in GDP in 2020 and institutional circumstances. We find that it is possible to curb the decline in GDP growth rates primarily in those countries where the population trusts the government. The decline in GDP in some countries under consideration occurs against the background of relatively high information and personal freedom that contributes to a decline in the level of trust in the government in the context of the pandemic. The regression analysis confirms that almost half of the differences between countries in GDP dynamics in 2020 are negatively related to two factors: COVID-19 mortality and information freedom. If the people have no trust in the government, then the efforts it undertakes to adapt to an emergency situation may prove ineffective, and social activity can become destructive. In the future, it would be useful to compare the adaptive capacity of countries in terms of the rate of recovery of their economies after the pandemic.

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