Foreign experience. Рубрика в журнале - Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast

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A new liberal class in Japan: based on latent class analysis

A new liberal class in Japan: based on latent class analysis

Hashimoto Tsutomu, Kanazawa Yusuke, Tominaga Kyoko

Статья научная

Presently, in Japanese politics, the majority of people opt to vote for conservative parties, with anti-conservatives and old liberals losing power and representation in the government. This study explores the emerging middle-class who may potentially lead to an alternative liberal politics in Japan. Using responses to an Internet survey conducted in 2018 as our data, we articulate features of a new liberal class by constructing a theory of class articulation and combining that theory with latent class analysis to compare the new liberals to old liberals and conservatives. This is the first attempt to apply latent class analysis to figure out differences in political orientations among possible social classes. We analyze some personality traits of the new liberals using our original 18 personality categories. We also analyze their social attitudes by comparing their questionnaire responses to those of old liberals. Although our analysis shows that new liberals are not experiencing upward social mobility, their personalities as defined by our study constitute a new political class, that is particularly sensitive to the environmental issues, and prefer the nature and minimal consumption. We discovered that these new liberals are in their sixties, graduates of university or graduate school, professionals, and low-income people. We have also discovered that although these new liberals are a coherent political class, they have no representations in our political party system. However, further research based on mail survey especially for elderly people should be conducted in order to conceive more precise features of new liberals.

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A short history of Japanese sociology: its historical legacies and future dreams

A short history of Japanese sociology: its historical legacies and future dreams

Nomiya Daishiro

Ред. заметка

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A study on the international tourism of Jiangxi province under the guidance of one belt, one road strategy

A study on the international tourism of Jiangxi province under the guidance of one belt, one road strategy

Guo Xiaojing

Статья научная

In recent years, with the shift and violent development of economic globalization and sciences and technology, the connection between counties and citizens all over the world has become more and more intimate, so that the international tourism develops quickly and has become one of the important revenue sources gradually. In 2013, China proposed the new strategic thought of One Belt, One Road (the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road). Jiangxi province will bring its local regional superiority to full play under the guidance of the strategic thought, and powerfully cooperate with neighboring provinces and cities, in order to actively participate in the international tourism market and attempt to make its international tourism bigger and stronger. As the national strategic pillar industry, tourism plays an important role in the regional industrial structure adjustment and upgrade. Possessing the characteristics of strong integration, high interactivity and wide expansibility, tourism is the important engine to accelerate the development of urban economy...

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Agricultural modernization and sustainable development under resource and environmental constraints

Agricultural modernization and sustainable development under resource and environmental constraints

Mao Zhiyong

Статья научная

The agricultural modernization of any country must be considered in the light of its national conditions, its population, resources and economic and social conditions. China’s government clearly expresses the desire to promote agricultural modernization at the same pace with the in-depth development of industrialization, information technology, and urbanization, which is a major task for the construction of a moderately prosperous society and for the achievement of modernization. Due to the growing resource and environmental constraints, promoting the agricultural modernization must take the way of achieving its sustainable development based on the status quo of the environment and basic national conditions.

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Analysis and adoption of the experience of the global food system diversification in the Republic of Belarus

Analysis and adoption of the experience of the global food system diversification in the Republic of Belarus

Griboedova Irina Anatolevna

Статья научная

The article considers the main trends in the diversification of the global food system. The author proves that at the present time the dynamic development and globalization in the modern world economy require diversification of Belarusian agro-food complex in order to achieve its independence from crises, reduce risks of the external environment uncertainty, unforeseen circumstances (export embargoes and restrictions) and changes in consumer preferences and, ultimately, boost competitiveness and strengthen economic immunity and stability. At the same time, the pressure of the abundant food supply in the world market segments, ensured by consumer demand, makes the manufacturers follow the principle “from fork to farm”. Thus, it is consumers’ preferences that are often drivers of contradictory and competing shifts in the transformation of food systems. The survey shows that two opposite driving forces - the consumers’ desire for ready-to-use food products with the deep level of processing and the growing elite interest in the natural healthy diet - determine the progressive development of productive forces in the agricultural complex in the direction of innovative search of diverse, adapted to consumer demand, high-tech schemes of production, processing and distribution of food...

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Analysis of the impact of the flow of migrant workers on regional economy: based on the thought about the promotion of Jiangxi regional economic competitiveness

Analysis of the impact of the flow of migrant workers on regional economy: based on the thought about the promotion of Jiangxi regional economic competitiveness

Sun Yuping

Статья научная

Labor resource is the necessary productive factor in regional economic development, and one of important indexes to evaluate regional economic competitiveness. The great economic achievement brought by the 30-year reform and opening up of China is due to the fact that China brought the backward advantage of “demographic dividend” into play, promoted the fast development of industrialization and urbanization, and became the second largest economy in the world. The entity of “demographic dividend” is the non-agricultural migrant population, i.e., migrant workers. The transfer employment of migrant workers has typical regional liquidity, and the imbalance of regional economy causes the flow of many migrant workers. In order to achieve harmonious development and coordinated development, underdeveloped areas must understand the character and regulation, adopt positive industrial policy and supportive policy, guide the reasonable flow of migrant workers, and realize the transfer of local employment and citizenization of migrant workers, which can enhance regional economic competitiveness.

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Awareness and attitudes toward social entrepreneurship among university students and disabled people. The case of the Czech Republic

Awareness and attitudes toward social entrepreneurship among university students and disabled people. The case of the Czech Republic

Kroil Ondrej, Pospil Richard, Kosina David

Статья научная

In the Czech Republic, the concept of social entrepreneurship is still being developed and lacks, for example, systematic public support and regulation. In addition, the total number of social enterprises operating in the Czech Republic is low and thus, the concept of social entrepreneurship cannot reach its potential. To accelerate this development, raising awareness of social entrepreneurship among the Czech population may be important. Based on the survey carried out among 200 possible stakeholders of Czech social enterprises we explored the awareness and attitudes of selected groups of people towards social entrepreneurship. These groups of people are disabled people as typical employees of Czech social enterprises and university students as possible future founders of these enterprises. Our research project focuses on three issues: i) the level of awareness of the concept of social entrepreneurship among university students and disabled people; ii) the position of disabled people in the current labour marketiii) the willingness of students to become entrepreneurs and to start business with social purpose. During the research, we used the method of structured questionnaires. The research shows that the awareness of the concept of social entrepreneurship is generally low. Nevertheless, students consider becoming entrepreneurs and starting a business with social purpose. The research also shows that according to the opinion of the respondents, it is difficult to find employment as a disabled person and that the current labour market does not offer enough vacant positions which could be interesting for these persons. From this perspective, we can assess further development of Czech social enterprises (especially of Work Integration Social Enterprises) as very important.

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Beyond teaching and research: stakeholder perspectives on the evolving roles of higher education

Beyond teaching and research: stakeholder perspectives on the evolving roles of higher education

Caro-Gonzlez Antonia, Anabo Icy F.

Статья научная

Many scholars have observed that the traditional teaching and research functions ascribed to higher education have now expanded to involve a wider range of objectives and actors in response to changing internal and external demands. However, the available literature on the topic lacks accounts reflecting stakeholder perspectives. This paper aims to respond to this limitation by implementing a content analysis of 12 semi-structured interviews with European and international experts in the field of higher education. More specifically, it sketches their views on higher education institutions’ roles considering current and emerging imperatives and the tensions and contradictions arising from the evolution of their conventional functions. The results show that higher education institutions are perceived to serve a combination of multiple roles: as enablers of skills and attributes, co-creators and users of knowledge, intermediaries between social actors, instigators of social change, and active agents of their own transformation. This finding aligns with literature in terms of the diverse and relational nature of modern higher education institutions’ operations. While desirable, their fulfilment generates several tensions and contradictions: such as responding to global vs. regional trends, adopting flexibility vs. standardization, pursuing excellence and competitiveness vs. inclusion, competing logics, and managing institutional inertia. The study can benefit educational managers and researchers by offering new insights into generating networked action and building ecosystems as higher education reconfigures its roles to navigate the changing social and economic landscape.

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Co-production between the provider and the recipient, as a method of increasing the performance in educational services

Co-production between the provider and the recipient, as a method of increasing the performance in educational services

Baraba Maria

Статья научная

The paper proposes the shaping of the concept of co-production in services and specifically refers to the educational process, respectively the cooperation between the supplier and the beneficiary of educational services. A “teacher-student” partnership is considered because we want to capture the system made up of the educational services provider and the active subject of educational training. The “teacher-parent” partnership isn't the subject of our research because we believe it may be a separate subject of research that transcends our current interest. After defining and clarifying the concept of co-production, an analysis is applied to a number of 500 respondents in education by giving concretely a questionnaire such as to provide adequate information for our purposes. The importance of the research undertaken resides in the conceptualization of the co-production between the offerer and the beneficiary in light of the elements through which it is reflected and in establishing connections between the availability of the beneficiaries to coproduce and certain elements taken into consideration such as the belief there will be some future advantages...

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Could neighbourhood ties still be important for the migrants in a metropolitan city?

Could neighbourhood ties still be important for the migrants in a metropolitan city?

Erginli Brge Elvan, Baycan Tzin

Статья научная

Although neighbourhood ties have diminishing roles in people's lives because the modern metropolis presents so much choice for its residents, they have not completely disappeared, especially for some groups. In metropolitan cities, migrants settle in the areas where other migrants from the same origin live. This situation represents more than socioeconomic factors, and the relationship forms that migrants maintain within and outside their neighbourhoods could be different from one migrant group to another. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of neighbourhood ties in the networks of the migrants in Istanbul, and to examine the type of ties by their geographical locations. According to the results of the analysis which demonstrates the concentration of different migrant groups in the districts of Istanbul, the focus is on the international migrants who came from Macedonia and old Yugoslavian countries (Sandzak region) and who live in Bayrampasa and Besiktas, and internal migrants who came from the biggest metropolitan city Ankara and its border city of Eskisehir and who live in Besiktas...

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Determinants of job satisfaction of workers from generations x and y: regional research

Determinants of job satisfaction of workers from generations x and y: regional research

Matveichuk Wieslaw, Voronov Viktor V., Samul Joanna

Статья научная

The paper discusses job satisfaction in the context of different generations of workers and the entry of new representatives in the labor market. The study is both theoretical and applied; it uses materials of quantitative and qualitative research on the issues under consideration. The main source of empirical data is a sociological surveys conducted in 2015 and 2017 according to the method of random non-repetitive sampling among employees of individual enterprises of different forms of ownership operating in Podlaskie North-Eastern region of Poland, and analysis of the data. The goals of our work are to identify the most important organizational factors that influence job satisfaction and to identify differences between the employees from the older generation (X) and the younger generation (Y) at regional enterprises of different ownership forms as objects of functional management. According to four indicators reflecting professional job satisfaction (working conditions, sense of self-worth, possibility of development, relations with other employees), the findings of our study revealed similarities and differences between them in the older and younger generations. Similarity consists in the fact that material results of activity are a priority for both generations of workers. Difference consists in the predominance of pragmatism in the younger generation and conservatism in the older generation. The study is of theoretical and practical importance in the field of professional business management in the region. It indicates what factors are important for the younger generation of workers in the context of achieving job satisfaction compared to the older generation. Therefore, the management of any enterprise should use a variety of management tools to improve the efficiency of its activities, for example, to differentiate the motives that will satisfy different needs and incentives in the work of employees of different age groups.

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Development opportunities of liner maritime passenger traffic in the Republic of Croatia

Development opportunities of liner maritime passenger traffic in the Republic of Croatia

Naletina Dora, Akar Ivana, Vuleti Ante, Petljak Kristina, Tulec Ivana

Статья научная

The main issue addressed in this paper relates to the analysis of maritime passenger ports in the Republic of Croatia and the impact of this type of maritime transport on tourism in the Republic of Croatia. Liner maritime passenger traffic is important for the development of coastal economies, especially tourism and trade, in preventing the emigration of the island population. Accordingly, it is necessary to invest in the modernization of liner passenger ships in order to respond to the difficult winter conditions of sailing, and the prolongation of the tourist season would lead to more frequent passenger lines. Considering that the liner maritime passenger traffic represents a significant type of transport in Croatia, the conducted research was directed toward that segment specifically. In order to achieve the set goals of this paper, the secondary and the primary research have been conducted. The aim of the primary research was to explore satisfaction of the consumers with the services of liner maritime passenger traffic in Croatia, and to identify possibilities for further improvements...

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Differentiated organizational and economic mechanisms of industrial-innovation development of the regions of Kazakhstan

Differentiated organizational and economic mechanisms of industrial-innovation development of the regions of Kazakhstan

Kireeva Anel Akhmetovna

Статья научная

Kazakhstan is characterized by significant interregional differences in the provision with natural resources and economic capacity; this feature is reflected in the level of economic development, provision with social infrastructure, and investment opportunities. Specifics of spatial development in Kazakhstan, different potential of its individual territories, differences in the structure and specialization of economic entities, ambiguity in the severity and depth of the crisis processes in the years of market reforms, the pace and forms of their implementation put the regions of our country in unequal conditions that aggravated their differentiation. That is why the Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev to the People of Kazakhstan “The Strategy “Kazakhstan 2050”: New Political Course of the Established State” sets out a very timely task of aligning the socio-economic conditions in the regions and forming new effective mechanisms of its implementation...

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Ecological capital operation mode and path of Poyang lake eco-economic zone

Ecological capital operation mode and path of Poyang lake eco-economic zone

Li Xiaoyu, Meng Zhaobo

Статья научная

In recent years, ecological capital has begun to draw the attention of the theoretical circle as a concept by which people enhance their understanding of the importance of ecological resources. Through market-oriented means, people strengthen the ecological capital operation to solve the problem of the deteriorating ecological environment, which also gradually get attention from all sectors of society. However, there are still few scholars to carry out in-depth studies on regional ecological capital from the perspective of operation mode and operation path. This study constructs a ecological capital operation mode of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone and explores a mode operation path with Poyang Lake Eco- Economic Zone as specific object of study. Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone has abundant ecological resources, therefore how to convert these ecological resources into ecological capital is the key to achieve green development in Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone, and also an important link in Jiangxi’s ecological civilization construction...

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Ecological compensation mechanism in water conservation area: a case study of Dongjiang river

Ecological compensation mechanism in water conservation area: a case study of Dongjiang river

Kong Fanbin, Li Zhimeng

Статья научная

The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed.

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Economic integration of immigrants through overcoming inequalities in employment and wages. Comparative analysis of British and French Muslim communities

Economic integration of immigrants through overcoming inequalities in employment and wages. Comparative analysis of British and French Muslim communities

Moisa Natalya I.

Статья научная

The issue of immigration management is one of the most complex and relevant both in academic science and practical politics. It polarizes public opinion and provokes fierce debate. One of the most important objective of the domestic policy of countries with a large number of immigrants is effective socio-economic integration of foreign cultural communities and consolidation of the civil society. The article deals with the general issues of integration of Muslim immigrants in the UK and France in the economy; provides data on their number, employment, income and social status compared with the ethnic majority. The information framework of the research includes official statistics, sociological surveys, analytics of government institutions and commissions, reports of well-known research centers and Muslim organizations. Due to the peculiarities of statistics it is impossible to directly compare the situation of British and French Muslims. Moreover, in the UK and France, migrant integration is carried out according to different historical models. The article demonstrates the specific features of each country in migrant resettlement, the position of Muslims in the labor market among various immigrant minorities, the issues of the national policy in fighting against discrimination and Islamophobia. The purpose of the article is to focus on objective quantitative and qualitative indicators of economic activity of Muslim immigrants in the two countries in question to overcome the existing stereotypes and political speculation. Analysis of the economic status of Muslims in the UK and France reveals a significant spread depending on the country of origin, country of birth, belonging to the first or the second generation of immigrants. The article concludes that the UK opens up more opportunities for the economic integration of Muslims than France.

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Environment-concerned treatment, proper policies for different households, targeted improvement: industry poverty alleviation mode of Ji'an county

Environment-concerned treatment, proper policies for different households, targeted improvement: industry poverty alleviation mode of Ji'an county

Zhang Xiaoxia

Статья научная

The article describes the experience gained in Ji'an County (Ji'an Prefecture-Level City, Jiangxi Province) on the implementation of policies aimed to alleviate poverty through the implementation of the “Four-One” Industry Targeted Poverty Alleviation Project including 1) “Pomelo of One Mu for One Household”, 2) “Hengjiang Grape of One Mu for One Household”,3) “One Chicken Coop for One Household”, and 4) “One Post in the Park for One Household”. It is proved that households that implement such projects can get out of poverty. The goal of the study is to help people living in poverty get out of it, and to help the poor county become richer. The author relies on the idea that is developing in modern social science and that deals with the structural poverty typical of different historical eras and economic paradigms1. In this case, the following types of structural poverty are distinguished: pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial poverty. The preindustrial type accompanies pre-capitalist development of society...

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Mechanisms for forming it-clusters as “growth poles” in regions of Kazakhstan on the way to “Industry 4.0”

Mechanisms for forming it-clusters as “growth poles” in regions of Kazakhstan on the way to “Industry 4.0”

Kireeva Anel A., Tsoi Aleksandr A.

Статья научная

The main prerequisite for successful innovative development is the natural course of modernization of world industries, currently characterized by the transition to “Industry 4.0”, where the main driver is information technology (including digital). With regard to the Kazakhstan economy, the emphasis is increased according to the Message of the President of Khazakhstan Nazarbayev N.A. to the people of Kazakhstan “The Third Modernization of Kazakhstan: Global Competitiveness”, dated 31.01.2017. He delivered “the first priority - accelerated technological modernization of the economy”. At the same time, an important aspect of accelerated technological modernization is the provision that it is important “to cultivate new industries that are created with the use of digital technology”. The purpose for the article is to develop scientific and practical recommendations and effective organizational and economic mechanisms to form IT-clusters in the regions of Kazakhstan on the way to “Industry 4.0”...

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