Regional economy. Рубрика в журнале - Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast

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A forecasting assessment of the affordability of a balanced diet for residents of Russian regions: an agent-based approach

A forecasting assessment of the affordability of a balanced diet for residents of Russian regions: an agent-based approach

Mashkova Aleksandra L., Dukhi Natisha, Nevolin Ivan V., Savina Olga A.

Статья научная

Amid the coronavirus pandemic in Russia, the financial situation of households is deteriorating, as well as their ability to provide themselves with a full-fledged and balanced diet with an optimal content of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. The aim of the work is to conduct a forecasting assessment of the affordability of a balanced diet for households in the context of various scenarios of the economic and epidemiological situation. The applied research methodology involves creating a comprehensive agent-based model reflecting the course of demographic and economic processes that determine food production, people’s income and health. When assessing the affordability of a balanced diet, we consider the number and income of households and the share of income allocated for the purchase of foodstuffs. The information content of the model is based on data arrays available at the websites of the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia, ministries and departments; we also use the data of a product prices monitoring conducted specifically for this purpose. We develop balanced diets that ensure the intake of 75 and 90% of key vitamins and minerals with the necessary caloric content. The products included in the diets are optimized by price; on the basis of the results of the prices monitoring, we estimate the cost of the diets and their affordability for the population in each region of the Russian Federation, according to the data as of 2020. The affordability of diets in different regions varies greatly: from 35% in the Chechen Republic to 95% in Moscow, with an average value of 83%. Scenario-based modeling of the affordability of high-quality food for Russian population is carried out for the period through to 2025. Under the optimistic scenario, there is a decrease in the affordability of diets to 81%; under the conservative and pessimistic scenarios, we observe a steady decline in the affordability of vitamin diets to 76 and 72%, respectively. The results we have obtained indicate serious risk of deterioration of the quality of nutrition of Russian residents; it is associated with falling incomes and rising food prices. Besides, within the framework of scenario-based calculations, we have determined the amount of subsidies to be provided to low-income population groups so that they could afford a balanced diet.

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About the prospects for development of the region on the basis of interregional cooperation

About the prospects for development of the region on the basis of interregional cooperation

Uskova Tamara Vitalevna, Lukin Evgenii Vladimirovich

Статья научная

The paper considers issues related to the development of interregional economic cooperation. The primary hypothesis is the thesis that the strengthening of interregional relations is an important factor in regional economic development. This thesis is confirmed by analysis and generalization of several scientific theories. Using an industrialized region of Russia (Vologda Oblast) as a case study, the authors test their own methodological tools of activization of interregional cooperation as a factor in the development of economy in an industrialized region. The general logic of using this tool involves three main interrelated steps: informational-analytic, target and implementation. The information-analytical step involves collection, systematization and analysis of the materials that constitute the necessary information base. The target step defines possible solutions to the problems related to interregional cooperation of the Vologda Oblast, forms the targets and objectives (taking into account national goals and regional tasks of industrial development), highlights the priorities of work in this area and calculates possible consequences of their implementation...

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Adaptation of companies in the Republic of Karelia to the economic recession in Russia in 2014-2015

Adaptation of companies in the Republic of Karelia to the economic recession in Russia in 2014-2015

Timakov Ivan Vsevolodovich

Статья научная

Regional companies in Russia found themselves in unique conditions of negative consequences of sanctions and reducing resource revenues in resource-driven Russian economy. Regional companies are not ready to the new economic reality, which makes it a hallmark of the economic recession in 2014- 2015. Our study captures the reaction of regional companies to sharp market changes and selection of new adaptive patterns of behavior aimed at developing and sustaining business. The purpose for the study is to assess the impact of the economic recession in Russia in 2014-2015 on the adaptation of companies in the Republic of Karelia to recession conditions. The impact of events was recorded directly from the estimates and intentions of management in the process of conducting half-formalized in-depth interviews with companies' leaders. Based on the method of quota arrangement, we selected key stakeholder companies in 3 regions in the Republic of Karelia and made a list of special respondents occupying leading positions in the companies...

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Application of outsourcing in the regions of Eastern Siberia and the Far Eastern federal district

Application of outsourcing in the regions of Eastern Siberia and the Far Eastern federal district

Kriger Aleksandra Borisovna, Ivin Vyacheslav Vadimovich

Статья научная

Outsourcing is currently common in Russian business practice. The use of outsourcing changes the system of management in a company and affects its performance indicators. The aim of this study is to identify patterns in the development of outsourcing in regions of the Far Eastern Federal District and Eastern Siberia on the basis of empirical data. Despite the widespread introduction of outsourcing in the activities of enterprises, the patterns of development of this phenomenon at the regional level, its relationship with economic indicators and investment attractiveness of the regions are not studied sufficiently. The relevance of the study is determined by the strategy of improving the business environment in the regions with the aim of attracting investment and implementation of innovative technology. Our research is built on the information methods of data structuring and correlation and regression analysis. We selected activities that are transferred to outsourcing and developed a structure of a multidimensional data array that helps apply various methods of analytical data processing...

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Assessing the regional housing market development in the northern and arctic regions of the Russian Federation

Assessing the regional housing market development in the northern and arctic regions of the Russian Federation

Emelyanova Elena E., Chapargina Anastasiya N.

Статья научная

The purpose of the study is a comprehensive assessment of housing market development based on a new system of indicators reflecting the population’s solvency and demand in the housing market, the economic development of the housing market, in order to identify trends in the housing market over a long period and reveal key problems hindering the housing market development in the Northern and Arctic regions of Russia. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the regional housing markets, analyze the indicators of economic development in the North and the Arctic, estimate people’s financial capacity and demand in the housing market, indicate major changes in the regions’ housing sector that can occur on the background of the measures applied by the state due to the coronavirus pandemic. The scientific novelty of the work is determined by a comprehensive study of regional housing markets in the Northern and Arctic regions using the indices proposed by the authors, which made it possible to formulate a number of proposals for developing the housing market in the Arctic and Northern regions of the Russian Federation. The study results can be used by the government and administrative authorities in developing policies in the field of providing the population with comfortable housing and improving the regions’ housing stock, in working out the programs aimed at housing construction, as well as by specialists in the field of finance, researchers. In the future, based on a comparative analysis of the regions’ housing development, the authors plan to predict the regional housing markets development taking into account the changing parameters of population solvency and construction industry, considering the specifics of the Federation subject’s development and the effectiveness of government measures in this sector of the economy during the crisis period of the pandemic.

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Asymmetry problems of structural shifts in regional economy

Asymmetry problems of structural shifts in regional economy

Rumyantsev Nikita M., Leonidova Ekaterina G.

Статья научная

In the absence of a significant dynamics of economic growth rates in the Russian Federation and its regions and the exhaustion of the recovery increase potential, a negative impact of economic crises and existing export-raw production orientation manifest themselves especially clearly. As a result, a necessity to find new development drivers, which includes a great significance of the structural factor of the economic growth at the regional level in the context of achieving economic growth of the country, becomes relevant. In this regard, the purpose of the research is the analysis of structural shifts in regional economy at different phases of the economic dynamics. The novelty of the research is the definition of the contribution of structural shifts in the region's economic growth at different phases of the economic dynamics. The methodology is based on the calculation of structural shifts' indicators - magnitude, index, velocity, and power. We conducted the analysis of sectoral structural transformations of the regional economy on the basis of the Vologda Oblast's materials for 2005-2018. The research revealed a low diversification and efficiency of adding economy into global chains of value added. We calculated the impact of the structural factor on the growth of gross regional product depending on an increase or decline in the economy. The activation of the potential of agriculture, mechanical engineering, and electronic industry sectors is seen as very promising. We calculated the multipliers of the impact of the stimulation of the proposed sectors on the basis of the inter-sectoral balance model. We reviewed the structural-investment policy as an important instrument of changing national economic proportions. The idea of forming the benchmarking system, concerning the efficiency of conducted structural policy, was substantiated. A practical importance of the research is an opportunity to use its results by authorities for the formation of regional structural policy. We will continue the studies related to the determination of the dependence of regional economy's growth dynamics on structural dynamics in the investment process, organization of the factor analysis of the industry shifts and economic growth, and formation of the system of optimal indicators of the structural policy benchmarking.

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Clustering Russian Federation regions according to the level of socio-economic development with the use of machine learning methods

Clustering Russian Federation regions according to the level of socio-economic development with the use of machine learning methods

Ketova Karolina V., Kasatkina Ekaterina V., Vavilova Diana D.

Статья научная

The paper solves the problem of clustering Russian Federation regions according to their socioeconomic development, taking into account the sectoral structure of the gross regional product. Classical machine learning methods are a tool for solving the clustering problem. The object of the study is the differentiation of regions according to various socio-economic indicators. The subject of the study is the practice of using machine learning methods for clustering objects. The initial database for solving the problem of clustering regions includes actual statistical data on socio-economic development of RF constituent entities and the sectoral structure of their gross regional product as of 2019. We identify clusters of regions according to their socio-economic development with the use of modern machine learning methods implemented in Python, a high-level programming language, with the connection of libraries for working with data: Pandas, Sklearn, SciPy, etc. The preprocessing of the initial data was carried out: digitization of data categories, transition to specific values, standardization of indicators. The initial data set for 2019 contains 5,525 records on 65 indicators of socio-economic development for 85 regions of the Russian Federation. It identifies 15 basic indicators of socio-economic development of a region, based on the principal component analysis. According to these indicators, five regional clusters were identified with the use of the k-means clustering: the first cluster is characterized by a high share of wholesale and retail trade, real estate transactions, professional, scientific and technological activities in the GRP structure; the second cluster specializes in manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, real estate transactions, agriculture and forestry; the third cluster can be described as a cluster with a mixed economy, which is characterized by averages for the main socio-economic indicators in the Russian Federation; regions of the fourth cluster show a high level of unemployment and a high share of public administration, military and social security; the fifth cluster specializes in mining.

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Comprehensive assessment of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions

Comprehensive assessment of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions

Karelina Mariya Gennadevna

Статья научная

In the context of economic sanctions and growing international isolation, the research into regional differences in integration development acquires special relevance for Russia; this fact determines the need for a comprehensive assessment of integration activity of business structures in Russian regions. The diversity of approaches to the study of problems and prospects of economic integration and the current debate about the role of integration processes in the development of regional economies determined a comprehensive approach to the concepts of “integration” and “integration activity” in order to create objective prerequisites for analyzing integration activity of business structures in the regions of Russia. The information base of the research is the data of Russian information and analytical agencies. The tools used in the research include methods for analyzing structural changes, methods for analyzing economic differentiation and concentration, nonparametric statistics methods, and econometric analysis methods...

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Current state and the features of location of small business in regions of Russia

Current state and the features of location of small business in regions of Russia

Leonov Sergei N.

Статья научная

World experience shows that the current state of small business is a kind of catalyst for the development of economic relations in market economies. The revival of small business in Russia is three decades old, but the potential benefits of small business are still weak. The paper attempts to assess the dynamics of the state and features of the differentiation of small business in the regions of modern Russia; we show the problems in the organization of this process, consisting in the variability of criteria for determining small business, incomplete information base and the lack of conventional approaches to assessing the differentiation of small business. We substantiate the need to use as an information base the data from full-scale federal statistical observations of the state of small business in Russia in 2010 and 2015. We prove that the approach to monitoring the development of small business in the regions of the Russian Federation should be comprehensive, taking into account the state of both individual entrepreneurs and small business enterprises in the territory...

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Developing an organizational and economic mechanism for shaping and regulating the competitive environment in the regional economy

Developing an organizational and economic mechanism for shaping and regulating the competitive environment in the regional economy

Vokhmyanin Ivan A.

Статья научная

The processes of economic development of countries, industries, and enterprises are necessarily accompanied by the competition between the subjects of economic activity. That is why it is important to create favorable conditions for them, to form a competitive environment that meets market principles of economic activity, taking into account minimum intervention of the government in the functioning of the market. Russia is inferior to many countries - even to the former Soviet republics - in terms of favorable business environment; it ranks 40th in the Doing Business rating. Since there is no system approach to the formation of a competitive market environment and state competition policy is carried out with the help of economic coordination of economic entities, it becomes relevant to determine the set of elements (subjects, objects, methods, tools, etc.) regulating this area, and to study the links between them. Based on this, the goal of the present study is to develop an organizational and economic mechanism to shape and regulate the competitive environment in the regional economy...

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Development of entrepreneurship in the region: drivers and problems

Development of entrepreneurship in the region: drivers and problems

Ignatova Irina Viktorovna, Ignatov Evgenii Sergeevich

Статья научная

The paper examines drivers of entrepreneurship development in the region on the example of Ural Federal District regions. The goal of the research is to identify drivers of and problems in the development of entrepreneurship in the region. We use theoretical, logical, statistical, analytical, and index methods. Scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that it considers global experience of research entrepreneurship as applied to the level of region, identifies sets of factors that promote the development of entrepreneurship in the Tyumen Oblast, and assesses their impact on the level of entrepreneurship development. The paper also considers problems in the development of entrepreneurship in the Tyumen Oblast. We propose indicators that assess implementation efficiency of regional (state) programs for entrepreneurship support. We carry out a comparative analysis of some aspects of governmental support provided to small business in some countries. By 2016, Russia has made a breakthrough and improved economic environment for doing business, but there has been a decline in institutional environment indicators...

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Development of small business in regions of the North-West federal district of the Russian Federation

Development of small business in regions of the North-West federal district of the Russian Federation

Smirnova Galina Porphirevna, Burkatskaya Olga Aleksandrovna, Smirnov Arthur Andreevich

Статья научная

The article represents the statistical data on the development of small business in subjects of North-West federal district for the period of 2003 - 2008. The results of the comparative analysis of the region’s achievements on such indicators as quantity of the registered small enterprises per 100 thousand inhabitants, employment of workers on small enterprises, volumes of production output at small enterprises, investments in fixed capital at small enterprises are given.

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Dynamics of investment in fixed capital in the economy of the northern regions

Dynamics of investment in fixed capital in the economy of the northern regions

Gadzhiev Yusif Alimovich, Akopov Valerii Ishkhanovich, Kanev Viktor Nikolaevich

Статья научная

The article describes characteristics and trends of investment in fixed capital of the Northern regions. It singles out phases of rapid pre-crisis growth, crisis, post-crisis growth and stagnation. Stagnation and decline in recent years are caused by completed major investment projects, reduced own funds of enterprises, limited availability of investment resources and increased capital outflow. The article reveals that the growth of investment in fixed capital of the North in the post-crisis period is provided by the regions, carrying out major investment in oil and gas pipeline transport, oil extraction, production and distribution of electricity, gas and water. The changes in the sectoral structure of investment in fixed capital of the Northern regions are barely visible; the share of investment in the traded sector is still high, especially in mining, due to the Northern regions’ specialization in the extractive industries. The share of investment in the public sector and social services remains low...

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Econometric assessment of social indicators' influence on the regional economic growth dynamics (case study of the subjects of the Volga federal district)

Econometric assessment of social indicators' influence on the regional economic growth dynamics (case study of the subjects of the Volga federal district)

Bazueva Elena V., Radionova Marina V.

Статья научная

Social factors of endogenous economic growth are becoming the subject of modern research increasingly frequently. The contribution of human capital individual parameters and income inequality indicators are the most studied ones. Cross-country studies lead to conflicting conclusions. The results of Russian research are generally unambiguous, since the regional level of analysis is more similar in terms of institutional conditions and the level of socio-economic development. However, they do not define the nature of the impact of a number of significant social indicators on regional economic growth. In this regard, the purpose of the paper is to determine the nature of the influence of a set of social indicators on the regional economic growth dynamics by means of econometric modeling tools. The methodological basis is made up by the epistemological tools, in particular, system, hypothesis-deductive and dialectical approaches, as well as the methods of content analysis and econometric modeling. The most significant results characterizing the scientific novelty of the presented research include the following: 1) it is determined that the impact of the population's birth rate, mortality and morbidity on GRP corresponds to the nature of the dependencies identified for countries having experienced the second demographic transition; 2) it is established that the character of influence of the indicators of “life expectancy”, and “the number of students studying in bachelor, specialist, master degree programs” and “the number of employees with higher education in the region's economy” on the GRP does not correspond to the trends in developed countries; 3) it is proved that the inconsistency of the obtained results is a consequence of the underestimation of human capital as the main factor in the development of the Russian economy at the present stage; 4) the extent and consequences of the restraining effect of the analyzed social indicators on the dynamics of regional economic growth are determined. Based on the results of econometric modeling, the priorities of regional socio-economic policy for the medium term are identified, depending on the level of their impact. The authors associate the prospects for future research with a deeper study of the impact of life expectancy and mortality factors on the regional economic growth, as well as the verification of this model for the entire set of regions of the Russian Federation.

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Economic activity in Russian regions

Economic activity in Russian regions

Rastvortseva Svetlana N.

Статья научная

The paper deals with the issues of concentration of economic activity in Russian regions influenced not only by factors of the “first nature” - presence of minerals, fertile land, favorable geographic position, but also by factors of the “second nature”, in particular, the agglomeration effects and potential savings in the scale. Analysis of the geographic concentration and the region-specific focus reflects the general trend in the concentration of industrial production, investment and human resources, provides the necessary information framework for a harmonized economic policy. The purpose for the study is to theoretically justify and analyze economic activity concentration in terms of assessment of concentration and specialization of Russian regions over time. The paper reveals terminological aspects of concentration, agglomeration, specialization, agglomeration economics and urbanization. The applied methodological tools of assessment include the localization factor, Herfindahl-Hirschman and Krugman concentration and specialization indices, Gini index...

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Evaluating digital ecosystems in Russia's regions

Evaluating digital ecosystems in Russia's regions

Stepanova Vera V., Ukhanova Anna V., Grigorishchin Aleksei V., Yakhyaev Dilmurad B.

Статья научная

Successful establishment and functioning of the digital economy is possible only in an adequate digital ecosystem, but the semantic and structural content of this system has not been defined adequately yet. Such uncertainty can be found at different levels (federal, regional and local) and in various aspects: subject-related, branch, segment, technical and others. At the same time, the need to implement effective measures for the development of regional digital ecosystems requires not only an understanding of their qualitative content, but also an accurate quantitative assessment. Our paper analyzes conceptual approaches to the definition of a digital ecosystem, provides our own understanding of its full content, which allows us to build a sufficiently verifiable assessment of digital ecosystems development at the regional level. We present a technique for assessing the development of regional digital ecosystems; according to this technique two integrated indices are calculated, and on this basis we carry out an analysis on 82 constituent entities of Russia over the period of two years. The study reveals the existence of significant differentiation between the regions according to the level of development of digital ecosystems; it also helps identify a number of characteristic types of regions in this context. Our assessment has shown that, along with the majority of the regions where the development of digital ecosystems is defined as average, some regions show opposite trends. There are regions, for example, the Belgorod and Kirov oblasts, in which the conditions for the digital environment are below average, but the level of ecosystem development in them is average or higher. There are regions where the situation is the opposite, i.e. the conditions are quite high, but the level of development of the digital ecosystem as a whole leaves much to be desired. Such a negative example is the Moscow Oblast. We also identify leading regions and problem regions. We hope that a reliable assessment of development of digital ecosystems using our technique will help work out effective solutions for successful promotion of the digital economy in Russia.

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Forming the strategies for enhancing the effectiveness of rural entrepreneurial organizations in Russia

Forming the strategies for enhancing the effectiveness of rural entrepreneurial organizations in Russia

Polbitsyn Sergei N.

Статья научная

Political, economic and social events of recent years, taking place in all of the countries, when economic institutions and systems are destroyed in a short time under the influence of negative external factors, indicate the need to create resilient socio-economic territorial systems. This problem is essential to rural areas that are most vulnerable to negative external impacts, which confirms the relevance of finding ways and directions to ensure their sustainable development. Our previous research has shown that the formation of an entrepreneurial ecosystem of rural areas, substantiating the institutions of their development, can ensure sustainability of socio-economic development of rural areas and increase their resilience. The article proposes a model for building strategies for the development of entrepreneurial organizations within the entrepreneurial ecosystem, aimed at ensuring sustainable socio-economic development of rural areas and increasing the competitive environment of the ecosystem. The purpose of the article is to develop a factor model for building entrepreneurial strategies of entrepreneurial organizations that adequately meet the role of the rural entrepreneurial ecosystem in the current conditions of development of Russian rural areas. The strategic development concept is usually applied in the analysis of large corporate organizations. It is believed that small businesses, exposed to external factors, must use adaptive tactics and cannot formulate and implement a strategy for their development. Based on the analysis of scientific literature and the results of a survey of entrepreneurs on the example of the Sverdlovsk Oblast of the Russian Federation, we found that rural entrepreneurs seek to determine strategic directions of their development. The article presents approaches to the disclosure of relevant factors that determine the model for choosing a development strategy for rural entrepreneurial organizations. The information base of the study includes research works of Russian and foreign scientists on the topic under consideration, as well as the results of a thematic survey. The scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that for the first time an attempt has been made to build a factor model for strategic development of rural entrepreneurs within the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystem of rural areas.

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Free port of Vladivostok: development conditions, prospects, risks

Free port of Vladivostok: development conditions, prospects, risks

Krasova Elena Viktorovna, Ma Yingxin

Статья научная

One of the priority directions of Russia's state policy with regard to territories' development is the development of the Far Eastern region. The free port of Vladivostok is one of the key projects that are currently being implemented in the southern part of Primorsky Krai and they focus on boosting the socio-economic development of Vladivostok city, Primorsky Krai and the Far Eastern region as a whole. The goal of this research is to consider the conceptual issues of the free port of Vladivostok, to outline the conditions and prospects of its operation and identify risks associated with its future development. The article defines the modern concept of “free port”, characterizes historical experience of the “free port” regime in Vladivostok in the end of the 19th century, substantiates the strategic importance of using the free port of Vladivostok as a tool of intensive growth of Russian Far Eastern territories. The article also discloses the essence of the free port of Vladivostok as a means to promote free entrepreneurship, which is used to increase freight traffic through the port of Vladivostok, increase foreign trade, attract new investments, create new industries and develop the port's infrastructure...

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Inclusion of population in digital space: global trends and inequality of Russian regions

Inclusion of population in digital space: global trends and inequality of Russian regions

Gruzdeva Maria A.

Статья научная

The issue of digital inequality and development of a methodology for measuring it has been at the center of attention of researchers, members of public administration, companies directly involved in the provision of Internet communication services, and other interested parties for more than twenty years. This issue became relevant with the increase of the rate of the Internet spread in certain parts of the world, and, accordingly, the lag of other countries behind them in the late 90s and early 21st century. The sphere of information and communication technologies is one of the most rapidly changing ones, which is probably why the theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of digital inequality are still not clearly defined, which actualizes research in this area and the importance of monitoring trends in the world and individual states. The purpose of our work is the usage of the three-level model of digital inequality for assessing first-level differences among population of Third World countries and Russian regions. It is assumed that the research results will create prerequisites for continuing study on other levels of digital asymmetry among Russian population, which will allow revealing not just the fact of its inclusion in digital space but the level of digital competencies and opportunities provide by the usage of modern information technologies. We use a set of scientific methods; for measuring inequality, the author resorts to the calculation of the variation coefficient, grouping of countries or regions based on levels of Internet connectivity. Conclusions are drawn about the existence of the first-level digital inequality in the world, despite a significant decrease of the differentiation of countries by Internet connectivity. It is revealed that Russia, in comparison with other countries, shows a significant increase of the share of Internet users, and there are elements of digital divide within Russian regions even with the decrease of variation coefficients. The scientific novelty of the study is the assessment of the scale and dynamics of the first-level digital inequality among population at the country and regional levels, grouping of countries, and Russian regions by the share of Internet users and the usage of mobile devices to access the network.

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Industrial development issues in the economy of the old industrial regions of Russia

Industrial development issues in the economy of the old industrial regions of Russia

Uskova Tamara Vitalevna, Lukin Evgenii Vladimirovich, Melnikov Aleksei Evgenevich, Leonidova Ekaterina Georgievna

Статья научная

Achieving balanced economic development is a key task for old industrial regions, in which many industrial sectors are concentrated. However, current macroeconomic situation does not promote the development of industrial sectors and new technological modes; moreover, it can lead to a decline in production output, tax proceeds, people's real incomes, consumer demand and other negative trends in socio-economic development. A considerable gap in labor productivity between Russia and developed countries as well as between old industrial regions indicates the existence of major problems in Russian industry. For this reason, the aim of the research is to identify main trends and issues in the industrial sector of old industrial areas in order to work out its further development prospects. Methodological framework of the study includes economic, statistical, and comparative analysis, generalization, and sociological survey. The works of Russian and foreign economists in the field of regional economics, official data of the Federal State Statistics Service, databases of international organizations including the World Bank, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the U.S...

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