Статьи журнала - Вестник Южно-Уральского государственного университета. Серия: Компьютерные технологии, управление, радиоэлектроника

Все статьи: 908

"Умный город": стандарты, проблемы, перспективы развития

"Умный город": стандарты, проблемы, перспективы развития

Макаренко Константин Викторович, Логиновская Валерия Олеговна

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Рассматриваются основные трактовки понятия «умный город», описаны ключевые действующие международные и национальные стандарты, описаны основные проблемы цифровизации городского хозяйства в России. Формирование стандартов «умного города» в России актуально тем, что такие стандарты выступают ориентиром в планировании долгосрочных и краткосрочных мероприятий по цифровизации городского хозяйства. Открытые и универсальные стандарты ускоряют и удешевляют разработки в этой сфере. Вместе с тем к настоящему моменту Министерством строительства и жилищно-коммунального хозяйства Российской Федерации (Минстроем России) были разработаны базовые и дополнительные требования к «умным городам». Представлен сравнительный анализ международных стандартов «умного города» с требованиями, разработанными Минстроем России. В некоторых странах, активно реализующих программы по развитию «умных городов», в качестве ориентиров используются локализованные с учетом местной специфики международные стандарты. Так, для реализации программ по развитию «умных городов» в Республике Корея (программа «Умный Сеул») были локализованы стандарты, разработанные техническим комитетом ISO/TC 268, в том числе стандарт ISO 37120:2014 «Устойчивое развитие сообществ - индикаторы городских сервисов и качества жизни», а для городов - участников программы «Сто умных городов» («Smart Cities Mission») в Индии рекомендуется следование набору стандартов Британского института стандартизации (BSI) при реализации программы на всех уровнях. В работе использованы разработки международной организации по стандартизации (ISO), Британского института стандартизации, нормативные документы, подготовленные Минстроем России, и другие исследования, касающиеся развития «умных городов».

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3D-модель пересечения софокусных и псевдософокусных квадрик

3D-модель пересечения софокусных и псевдософокусных квадрик

Хейфец Александр Львович

Статья научная

Рассмотрено решение задачи о взаимном пересечении квадрик, совмещенных в точках фокуса или в точках фокуса их сечений. Это квадрики, образованные вращением: эллипсоид, гиперболоид, параболоид. Исследованы все сочетания таких квадрик. Показано, что пересечение происходит по одной или двум коникам. Исследованы особенности пространственного положения линий пересечения таких квадрик. Показано, что при совмещении рассмотренных квадрик и необходимом сочетании параметров взаимного положения могут возникать внешние общие касательные квадрики: эллиптический конус или параболический цилиндр. Кроме этого может возникать общая внутренняя касательная сфера. Исследования выполнены методами 3d компьютерного геометрического моделирования в пакете AutoCAD. Приведены примеры и алгоритмы построения касательных квадрик. Изучена взаимосвязь исследуемой задачи с известной теоремой Монжа.

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3d модели и алгоритмы компьютерной параметризации при решении задач конструктивной геометрии (на некоторых исторических примерах)

3d модели и алгоритмы компьютерной параметризации при решении задач конструктивной геометрии (на некоторых исторических примерах)

Хейфец Александр Львович

Статья научная

Рассмотрено применение 3D параметризации как нового эффективного инструментального средства компьютерных графических редакторов САПР для решения задач геометрического моделирования. Показаны особенности и возможности 3D параметризации для создания алгоритмов решения задач и их исследования. В качестве примеров приведены сложные и исторически известные задачи: построение прямой, пересекающей четыре скрещивающиеся прямые (задача о трансверсалях), нахождение тетраэдра или тройки осей по их заданной проекции (реконструкция теоремы Польке - Шварца), построение сферы, касательной к четырем заданным сферам (задача П. Ферма), усложненный вариант задачи совмещения коники и квадрики. Показана доступность, эффективность и актуальность новых методов в сравнении с методами начертательной геометрии, обоснована необходимость включения их в учебный процесс геометро-графической подготовки студентов.

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A device for simulating solar electromagnetic radiation microwave bursts

A device for simulating solar electromagnetic radiation microwave bursts

Darovskikh S.N., Shishkova Yu.S., Vdovina N.V., Gudaev N.N., Bagaev V.N., Komogorova A.R., Kochkina D.V., Abdalgabar O.J.A.

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There has been grounded the relevance of carrying out the research on the estimation of the modifying role of the Sun microwave radiation splashes on biorhythms of organisms. It has been noted that the necessary condition of such research realization is impossible without the construction of a device for microwave bursts simulating. There are provided the main characteristics that determine the physical basis for such a device construction, as well as its functional capabilities. The constructed device for simulating solar electromagnetic radiation microwave bursts in the frequency range of about 4 GHz has no analogues in the world. It allows us to obtain new knowledge about the interaction of organisms with electromagnetic radiation of natural and technogenic origin, its influence on various high-frequency biorhythms of organisms and microorganisms in particular.

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A fingerprint matching algorithm

A fingerprint matching algorithm

Wahhab H.I., Alanssari A.N., Rozhina D.S., Agafonov A.V.

Статья научная

Fingerprint pattern knowledge is largely applied in many fields such as access control and identity administration. This is however associated with some problem of automatic fingerprint recognition and therefore this has rendered to the use of the most known method that is biometric identification. Every finger of the hand shows a different pattern of ridges and depression different from the other finger and this pattern remains sole and constant thus helping in identity since fingerprint pattern from one person is different to that of another person. This pattern may alter whenever there are cuts and bruises in the outer part of the finger. Fingerprint pattern recognition method includes the following steps: firstly, matching of the fingerprint which includes the pattern based method and the minutiae method. Secondly, the used algorithm in the recognition and comparing of the fingerprint images. Thirdly, the image enhancement process that helps to improve the quality of the fingerprint pattern and forth the reduction of the size of the image which includes identification of the region of small minutiae and actual minutiae. The objective of this research is recognition of the fingerprint pattern.

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A model predictive approach to blast furnace operational management automation

A model predictive approach to blast furnace operational management automation

Kazarinov L.S., Shnayder D.A., Barbasova T.A., Basalaev A.A., Kolesnikova O.V., Lipatnikov A.V.

Статья научная

Blast furnace operational management automation using modelling and real-time predictive solutions for the object control are considered. Main features of the proposed control are: using of an operational data mining software to identify effective clusters of the furnace regime parameters values; real-time software for identification of the furnace cohesion zone parameters for the operational management correction; dynamics forecasting of the furnace thermal state indicators when charge load and blast parameters change. Usage of the software permits to achieve effective values of the furnace regime parameters with high productivity and reduced coke consumption. It is effective in conditions of the significant charge parameters changes, due to using of source materials from different suppliers. Therewith, forecasting of parameters dynamics allows supervisor to stabilize the blast furnace process in the effective regime. The system is based a joint development of the South Ural State University (National Research University), “Polytech-Automatica” Research & Production Ltd. (Chelyabinsk) and “AKOMM” Ltd. (Moscow).

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A multilevel resource-saving blast furnace process control

A multilevel resource-saving blast furnace process control

Barbasova T.A.

Статья научная

A multilevel resource-saving blast furnace process control is considered. The resource-saving control is provided for operating, adaptation, technical and economic control in the automated systems of blast-furnace processes. It is proposed to form optimal operation modes of blast furnace heating, metal charge structures, natural gas and oxygen consumption. Decisions are made using Kohonen neural networks taking into account current and planned parameters of coke quality, iron ore, raw materials and blast. At the level of operating control, the work suggests a model predictive control to improve the resource conservation indicators. The method is based on decomposition of the general problem of the process dynamics identification on particular problems: dynamic synchronization and identification of process transfer functions. At the level of adaptive control, optimal operating modes of blast furnaces are expedient to be developed with respect to blast furnace heating, structure of metal charge, natural gas and oxygen rate considering the current and planned parameters of coke, blasting. The blast furnace operating modes are suggested to be determined based on Kohonen neural networks. In evaluating the efficiency of introducing the model predictive control, the existing actual statistics of scatter of BF mode parameters should be based upon. The fact is that the introduction of model predictive control assumes no radical change of the BF melt technology. Like in all the control systems, the BF process is considered as the set control object with all its characteristics. Changing process settings, raw material content does not introduce any cardinal variation in the scatter of process characteristics. However, in this case a transient process occurs which is necessary for the control system to identify the changing conditions. The transient process is inherent to all the control systems and the blast furnace process is not an exclusion. As a result of transient process, the control system is set to the optimal mode.

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A new method of material resources management based on material flow cost accounting for industrial enterprises

A new method of material resources management based on material flow cost accounting for industrial enterprises

Khaldin K.S.

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In the article a new method of material resources management for industrial enterprises is introduced. The method is based on the concepts of sustainable development and the elements of environmental management theory, such as life cycle assessment and material flow cost accounting. Steps that have to be completed in order to improve material resources efficiency are outlined and discussed in detail. Two possible optimization routines are also introduced and reviewed, namely: search for a better production technology via comparative analysis of available alternatives of manufacturing operations and material flows redistribution procedure. The flowchart of material flows redistribution algorithm is shown.

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About the precision of the liquid doser of slit type with waveformated surfaces

About the precision of the liquid doser of slit type with waveformated surfaces

Nekrasov S.G.

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The device is used as an executive element of systems of biomedical assignment and can is used as the precision doser of liquid. The doser represents the slot-hole camera with waveformated surfaces. In contrast to the devices of peristaltic type with an elastic hose the considered device has no essential restrictions of downstream pressure and doesn't contaminate the transported liquid. In work the current of an incompressible fluid in a flat slot of infinite width is considered. Two cases of creation of the waveformated movement in an operating slot are analyzed: the movement in the form of the running wave and the movement in the form of the fluctuations modulated by the running wave. In the latter case, it is possible to implement, irrespective of the required frequency of the running wave, rather big resonant fluctuations of elements of the piezoelectric transducer. It, in turn, allows to receive, at high resonance frequency, a small-size design of the piezoelectric transducer. At the same time in its operating slot there is a longitudinal movement of waves of resonant vibration, and the pressure differentials corresponding to them. Flow of an incompressible liquid in a flat gap is considered. The equation of Reynolds is used for the description of driving of the fluid environment, the decision concerning pressure is brought to analytical expressions or quadratures. The lubricant flow rate and difference of pressure is defined on working length in an explicit form. Increase in pressure and expense in thin layers of an incompressible fluid with growth of amplitude and frequency of wave movements is shown. It is noted that it is slightly less magnitude of pressure differentials and expenses in layers with the fluctuations modulated by the running wave, than in layers with the running wave. These results are assessment from above and can be significantly less at emergence of cavitation in liquid. The analytical results received in work allowed to consider also questions of ensuring accuracy of operation of the doser in the different modes of its operation. It is shown that the largest accuracy of dispensing is reached when transporting liquid from a vessel in a vessel with identical pressure or in case of overlapping of a gap crests of a running wave.

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About the problems of the research of organisms interaction with the microwave radiation

About the problems of the research of organisms interaction with the microwave radiation

Darovskih S.N., Shishkova Yu.S., Vdovina N.V., Vodyanitskiy E.V.

Статья научная

The analysis of the main problems of studies of the organisms interaction with electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range is submitted. The controversial approach to assessing the role of microwave radiations of artificial origin for organisms is noted. One group of scientists considers these radiations as potentially dangerous to an organism, and the other group claims that under certain conditions they can be used in the medical purposes. The specified contradiction is eliminated by using exogenous approach to assessing the role of electromagnetic radiation in wildlife. In this regard in the article the operating role in the wildlife of the Sun microwave radiation reaching the surface of the Earth and the need for its simulation devices for reducing the negative impact on organisms of electromagnetic pollution is proved. The main results of microbiological studies using the developed hardware and software for simulation of the Sun microwave radiation in the superhigh-frequency range of wavelengths.

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Abstracts and keywords

Abstracts and keywords

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Adaptive algorithm for estimating vortex frequencies in vortex sonic flowmeters

Adaptive algorithm for estimating vortex frequencies in vortex sonic flowmeters

Lapin A.P., Druzhkov A.M.

Статья научная

The article focuses on the development of vortex shedding frequency estimation algorithm. It shows the difficulties of the application of classical algorithms (moving average and median fil-tering) for whole measurement range of vortex sonic flowmeter. These algorithms are effective at the high flow region, where frequency of arrival of information about vortex frequency is high. However, at the low flow region where aforementioned frequency equals to tenths of hertz these algorithms are ineffective. A new adaptive algorithm is offered which can operate in a whole range of flowmeter measuring. It combines an ability to react immediately if a flow starts changing, and to provide stable measurements if the flow is stable. The simulation of the proposed algorithm is implemented and its advantages over the algorithms used in serial manufacture are shown. It is noted that the developed algorithm does not need in powerful computing facilities.

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Adaptive guaranteed estimation of a constant signal under uncertainty of measurement errors

Adaptive guaranteed estimation of a constant signal under uncertainty of measurement errors

Khadanovich D.V., Shiryaev V.I.

Статья научная

In the guaranteed estimation problems under uncertainty relative to disturbances and measurement errors, the admissible sets of their possible values are determined. The solution is chosen due to conditions of guaranteed bounded estimates optimization corresponding to the worst realization of disturbances and measurement errors. The result of the guaranteed estimation is an unimprovable bounded estimate (information set), which turns to be overly pessimistic (reinsurance) if a prior admissible set of measurement errors is too large compared to their realized values. The admissible sets of disturbances and measurement errors can turn to be only rough upper estimates on a short observation interval. The goal of research is the accuracy enhancement problem of guaranteed estimation when measurement errors are not realized in the worst way, i.e. the environment in which the object operates does not behave as aggressively as it is built in a priori data on the permissible set of error values. Research design. The problem of adaptive guaranteed estimation of a constant signal from noisy measurements is considered. The adaptive filtering problem is, according to the results of measurement processing, from the whole set of possible realizations of errors, to choose the one that would generate the measurement sequence. Results. An adaptive guaranteed estimation algorithm is presented. The adaptive algorithm construction is based on a multi-alternative method based on the Kalman filter bank. The method uses a set of filters, each of which is tuned to a specific hypothesis about the measurement error model. Filter residuals are used to compute estimates of realized measurement errors. The choice of the realization of possible errors is performed using a function that has the meaning of the residual variance over a short time interval. Conclusion. The computational scheme of the adaptive algorithm, the numerical example, and comparative analysis of obtained estimates are presented.

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Algorithmization of reference security models of corporate automation systems based on formal security models

Algorithmization of reference security models of corporate automation systems based on formal security models

Luzhnov V.S., Sokolov A.N.

Статья научная

The paper considers the process of algorithmization of reference security models implemented on the basis of the existing formal security models. Main approaches to practical implementation of reference security models in a key of identifying potential areas for improvement are studied. The paper describes the analysis of constraints of models for synthesis based on their formal reference model amenable to implementation in a software algorithm for subsequent practical security analysis of real systems. On the basis of a formalized model graph is built which combines multiple information security vulnerabilities and attack methods of realization of the consequences for the security systems on the basis of which controllable models of real systems can be created. An algorithm of the semi-automatic analysis of the security of corporate automated systems is developed.

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Algorithms for in-line pressure transmitters condition monitoring

Algorithms for in-line pressure transmitters condition monitoring

Bushuev O.Yu., Tugova E.S., Motorina M.A.

Статья научная

Introduction. In the context of the transition of the world industry to new production technologies, the task of monitoring the technical condition of automatic control systems components, including pressure sensors, is urgent. Despite the existence of research and development aimed at creating systems for diagnostics and self-diagnosis of pressure sensors, the degradation mechanisms of mechanical parts of sensors and diagnostics algorithms during operation remain insufficiently studied. Aim. Propose algorithms for condition monitoring of the mechanical and hydraulic system of in-line pressure transducers. Materials and methods. This study is based on tests conducted on pressure modules with defects that simulate the lack of liquid in the separation cavity of the mechanical and hydraulic system of the transducer, manufactured by the industrial partner. The method of fault diagnosis is based on the analysis of statistical characteristics of the ADC signal of the pressure modules. Results. During the tests, hypotheses were confirmed about the dependence of the standard deviation of the output signal of the pressure module on the volume of liquid-oil in the channel. Based on the obtained data, algorithms for diagnosing the technical condition of the pressure sensor were proposed, which use the values of the sensor signal STD as a diagnostic parameter. The algorithms provide verification of the applicability conditions of the considered method and use additional information about the technological process. The problems that need to be solved for the practical implementation of algorithms in real production are formulated. Conclusion. The proposed algorithms for condition monitoring of the pressure sensor differ from the known diagnostic algorithms in that they use the results of experimental studies and are aimed at detecting a malfunction of the mechanical part of the sensors. Algorithms can be used to monitor the technical condition of in-line pressure sensors during operation under certain conditions that need to be clarified in the course of further research and field tests.

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An approach to fault diagnosis of gearboxbased on an instantaneous angular acceleration. Experimental study

An approach to fault diagnosis of gearboxbased on an instantaneous angular acceleration. Experimental study

Sinitsin V.V., Shestakov A.L.

Статья научная

Introduction. Gears are important parts of almost every operating mechanism in many industries. The gear condition monitoring is an important unit of condition monitoring of a mechanism as a whole. The vibration is one of the most used sources of information for equipment technical diagnostics. Traditionally, vibration is measured by accelerometers which are fixed on the mechanism body. Analyse of the measured data from the accelerometers requires applying the special methods and the staff with developed analytical skills. On the other hand, a novel approach to the accelerometer fitting location allows receiving extra diagnostic information and facilitating diagnosis. Aim. The present study shows the application of the novel approach to the accelerometer fitting location and the analyse of extra information for gearbox diagnosis. Materials and methods. The novel accelerometer fitting location is a rotating shaft of the mechanism. The extra diagnostic information is an angular acceleration of the rotating shaft. The theoretical base for the angular acceleration as diagnosis information is shown in the study. Results. The study contains experimental results of fault detecting such as the 'chipped tooth' and 'broken tooth' of a pinion. In addition, the study contains the proposed criteria for the detection of the local fault. Conclusion. The experimental results and the applied criteria show that the proposed approach allows detecting the pinion local defect on the first pinion rotation frequency clearly at various rotation frequencies.

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Analysis of methods of project management in aspect of security

Analysis of methods of project management in aspect of security

Bogatenkov S.A., Gelrud Ya.D., Bogatenkov D.S.

Статья научная

Modern information society is characterized by intensive penetration of information technology (IT) in all spheres of life. Modern socio-economic systems are in constant evolution, increasing their complexity and number of indicators required for analysis. The problem of technogenic energy security 70 % associated with the human factor. Modern information society is characterized by increased risks. Damages from technological disasters, accidents commensurate with the annual GDP growth. Information-analytical system of project management based on complex mathematical models of the functioning of the stakeholders allows minimizing the social risks as a result of consideration of the interests of functioning of the parties. However, for successful implementation of the project to implement the information-analytical system in the modern information society it is necessary to evaluate further the didactic risks associated with the training of stakeholders, i.e. with the formation of the corresponding competences, taking into account their basic education and work experience. The increase in the number of indicators of socio-economic systems and the role of the human factor leads to increasing damage and number of unsuccessful projects. Based on the review of the project management concluded that the need for a systematic approach to the impact of risks. First, for the implementation of methods that minimizes economic risks in connection with the registration and processing of a large amount of input information necessary to evaluate the risks of the implementation of information-measuring systems. Secondly, the implementation of information-analytical systems and compensation plans to reduce social risks, it is necessary to consider the risks, considering the dynamics of the development of enterprises. Thirdly, to implement the method of management of educational trajectories on the basis of classification of competences, allowing minimizing the didactic risks, it is necessary to consider the risks based on the experience of the staff.

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Application of bi-principles in the gate project management system to create a digital twin of the GTE

Application of bi-principles in the gate project management system to create a digital twin of the GTE

Loginovskiy O.V., Rizvanov K.A., Kulikov G.G.

Статья научная

Introduction. Currently, the Industry 4.0 concept integrates modern methodologies and practices for strategic and operational management of industrial enterprises and economies into the digital economy. It involves a wide and deep digitalization of physical and virtual objects, their connections, processes with the further possibility of their analytical analysis. Goal of the study. Analysis of the requirements for the degree of formalization of the description of the digital twin of the production system using graphoanalytic metalanguages classified according to the Chomsky hierarchy. Materials and methods. It is proposed to use a set-theoretic and categorical approach to the classification, identification, traceability and structuring of objects of production systems and their business processes in accordance with the requirements of quality standards. Results. The article substantiates the relevance of using intelligent business intelligence (BI) systems in the heterogeneous information space of a production system for analytical processing of semantic (content), logical and quantitative information. Conclusion. Modern organizations are complex systems, information management of which is provided by a wide range of software, a large number of data sources makes it difficult to consolidate data and receive aggregated reports. The use of intelligent business intelligence systems will allow targeted data extraction and analytical analysis. Models of business processes are isomorphically displayed in aggregate data accumulated in information systems. That is, these models are used to structure aggregate data in the required context.

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Application of fuzzy logic to assess banks' credit risk

Application of fuzzy logic to assess banks' credit risk

Ozerova M.I., Zhigalov I.E.

Статья научная

The banking system is a constantly evolving system. The information environment of the bank is growing, the volumes of processed information are increasing due to the growth of users and banking products. To reduce risks, banks make a financial assessment of the situation of individuals and legal entities. The aim of the work is to develop fuzzy multi-connected models designed to predict the receipt of a positive or negative decision to receive a banking product. The decision is made based on scoring. Scoring consists in assigning points for completing a certain questionnaire developed by underwriters of credit risk assessors. Based on the results of the points gained, the system automatically makes a decision on approving or refusing to issue a loan. Different banks have different scoring models. Purpose of the study. The paper considers the use of fuzzy models for making a decision by a bank to issue a banking product that implements the concept of “soft computing”. Methods. The use of fuzzy logic methods in credit scoring is not new, but it is not widely used in practice because it is expensive to integrate into existing systems. Each bank uses its own indicators of the client's financial reliability in scoring. Most of the indicators in banks are the same, but when deciding to issue different banking products, they have different numerical values. The data of the standard scoring methodology of a real bank were taken as the initial data. To predict a bank's decision to issue a banking product to a client, a fuzzy model was applied, production rules were proposed, and membership functions were determined. The model focused on the simultaneous processing of incoming data from multiple clients and for different banks and different scoring models. Results. The developed mathematical model for assessing the client's rating and predicting the decision to receive a banking product based on the fuzzy inference rule. The obtained results are proposed to be used in a multi-banking web-oriented system of providing banking products to corporate clients.

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