Religiosidad y espiritualidad en el marco del modelo de los cinco factores de la personalidad

Автор: Hugo Simkin, Pablo Rubio, Gabriela di Puglia, Maximiliano Preuss

Журнал: Revista Científica Arbitrada de la Fundación MenteClara @fundacionmenteclara

Статья в выпуске: 2, Vol. 4, 2019 года.

Бесплатный доступ

A pesar de que el vínculo entre la espiritualidad y los rasgos de la personalidad fue intensamente indagado en la literatura académica en los últimos años –particularmente en el marco del modelo y la teoría de los cinco factores de la personalidad, no existen trabajos de revisión que permitan sintetizar el estado del arte respecto de esta relación. Por este motivo, el propósito del presente trabajo es revisar los estudios que se proponen indagar los constructos numinosos en atención a las diferencias individuales a partir de una revisión sistemática de la bibliografía en las bases de datos PsycInfo, ERIC, Pubmed, CAIRN, CLASE, Scielo, Dialnet, Lilacs y Redalyc. De acuerdo con la revisión, si bien existe una considerable disparidad de resultados, generalmente se han reportado asociaciones positivas entre estos constructos y la apertura, la responsabilidad, la extroversión, y la amabilidad, y negativas con el neuroiticismo. Se concluye que la discrepancia en los resultados respondería a la multiplicidad de técnicas de evaluación disímiles empleadas para relevar la espiritualidad y la religiosidad.

Еще

Personalidad, espiritualidad, MCF

Короткий адрес: https://readera.org/170163664

IDR: 170163664   |   DOI: 10.32351/rca.v4.2.89

Фрагмент статьи Religiosidad y espiritualidad en el marco del modelo de los cinco factores de la personalidad

Introducción

La psicología de la personalidad se ha interesado tempranamente en las variables numinosas. Desde sus orígenes, distintos autores han debatido si estos constructos representan tendencias básicas de la personalidad, o si se trata de características adaptativas.

El presente artículo se propone relevar los principales antecedentes en psicología de la personalidad y en psicología de la espiritualidad y de la religión que han procurado establecer un vínculo entre los constructos numinosos y las diferencias individuales en el marco del modelo de los cinco factores de la personalidad.

Si bien son numerosos los estudios empíricos que han dado cuenta de dicha asociación, resultan escasos los trabajos que se ocupan de sistematizar los distintos enfoques relativos a su relación teórica.

Por este motivo, en la presente revisión se sigue principalmente el trabajo The Role of Personality in Understanding Religious and Spiritual Constructs, publicado por Ralph Piedmont en la primera edición del Handbook of Religion and Spirituality editado por Raymond Paloutzian y Crystal Park en 2005 y su revisión en la edición de 2012 publicado junto a Theresa Wilkins.

Finalmente, se siguen los desarrollos de Ralph Piedmont relativos a las diferencias entre la religiosidad, la espiritualidad y el FFM, su lugar estructural dentro del modelo, y el carácter universal de la espiritualidad.

Religiosidad y espiritualidad en psicología de la personalidad

Desde sus inicios, la espiritualidad y la religiosidad han resultado de gran interés en el área de la psicología de la personalidad, dado que se han encontrado fuertes asociaciones entre la búsqueda de lo sagrado y determinados patrones de pensamientos, emociones y comportamientos (Argyle & Beit-Hallahmi, 1975; Emmons, 1988, 1999a; Piedmont & Wilkins, 2013; Robbins & Francis, 2000).

Sin embargo, a partir del dossier editado por Robert A. Emmons en la revista Journal of Personality sobre religión en psicología de la personalidad a fines de la década del noventa, los artículos que vinculan estas variables crecieron exponencialmente (Emmons, 1999b; Rose & Exline, 2012).

A partir de estos trabajos, con diferentes matices (Piedmont, 1999b; Saroglou & Fiasse, 2003; Saroglou & Muñoz García, 2008), la mayoría de los estudios han observado que la personalidad puede contribuir a que un individuo se encuentre cómodo participando de actividades espirituales o religiosas, a la vez que ciertos contextos religiosos pueden incidir en el desarrollo de la personalidad a lo largo de la socialización (Koenig, King, & Carson, 2012; McCullough & Worthington, 1999), tal como sugieren diversas revisiones (Sanua, 1969) y estudios meta analíticos (Lodi-Smith & Roberts, 2007).

Cinco teorías de la personalidad

Si bien existen diversas teorías para explicar el vínculo entre los constructos numinosos y las diferencias individuales (Francis & Bourke, 2003; Kirkpatrick, 1999; Walborn, 2014), Piedmont (2005) identifica cinco modelos de la personalidad que son frecuentemente estudiados conjuntamente con la religiosidad y la espiritualidad:

Por una parte la teoría de la relación de objetos y el estilo de apego, que representan teorías de alcance intermedio que por lo general se enfocan en fenómenos psicológicos particulares; y por otra, la tipología de Eysenck, el modelo biopsicosocial de Cloninger y el FFM, que representan modelos más generales de la personalidad.

En particular, diferentes autores han observado que el FFM representa uno de los modelos de mayor relevancia, dado que permite conocer el desarrollo y expresión de los constructos numinosos a lo largo del ciclo vital, su importancia adaptativa, y el modo en que se asocian a las diferencias individuales (Ashton & Lee, 2014; Chang et al., 2015; Piedmont, Ciarrocchi, Dy-Liacco, & Williams, 2009; Piedmont & Wilkins, 2013; Rose & Exline, 2012).

En este sentido, Ozer y Reise (1994) sostienen que asociar un constructo al FFM resulta equivalente a establecer la latitud y longitud de una determinada locación en el mapa del planeta Tierra.

A partir de esta premisa, Piedmont (2005) sugiere que continuar evaluando la religiosidad y espiritualidad sin localizarlas en el FFM solo puede compararse con la actitud de un geógrafo que reporta una nueva tierra, pero se rehúsa a localizarla en un mapa.

El modelo de los cinco factores

Distintos autores han observado que el FFM juega un rol importante en el estudio de la religiosidad y de la espiritualidad, dado que permite conocer su desarrollo y expresión a lo largo del ciclo vital, su importancia adaptativa y el modo en que se asocian a las diferencias individuales (Ashton & Lee, 2014; Chang et al., 2015; Piedmont, Ciarrocchi, et al., 2009; Piedmont & Wilkins, 2013; Rose & Exline, 2012; Saroglou & Jaspard, 2000).

Además, Piedmont (2005), señala que el FFM también provee un modo de asociar los constructos religiosos entre sí. Así, aquellas escalas de religiosidad o de espiritualidad que se relacionen de manera similar al FFM, deberían compartir mucho personológicamente, mientras que diferentes patrones correlacionales podrían indicar que las dos escalas tienen muy poco en común (Piedmont, 2005).

Desde esta perspectiva, distintos estudios han encontrado relaciones entre los constructos numinosos y el FFM en diferentes países como Australia (Browne, Pennycook, Goodwin, & McHenry, 2014), Austria (Schnell, 2012), Bélgica (Duriez & Soenens, 2006; Duriez, Soenens, & Beyers, 2004; Saroglou & Fiasse, 2003), Canadá (Browne et al., 2014; Taylor & MacDonald, 1999), España (Saroglou & Muñoz García, 2008), Eslovaquia (Gajdosova, Orosova, Janovska, & Benka, 2014; Halama, Martos, & Adamovová, 2010), Estados Unidos (Henningsgaard & Arnau, 2008; Rowatt & Kirkpatrick, 2002), Hungría (Halama et al., 2010), Irán (Aghababaei, 2013; Aguilar-Vafaie & Moghanloo, 2008; Mirsaleh, Rezai, Kivi, & Ghorbani, 2010; Salmanpour & Issazadegan, 2012), Inglaterra (Lewis, 1999), Noruega (Kaldestad, 1996) o Turquía (Dirilen-Gümüş, 2010), en diferentes religiones (Aghababaei, 2013; Aguilar-Vafaie & Moghanloo, 2008) y grupos etarios (Taylor & MacDonald, 1999).

Si bien la mayoría de los diseños son transversales, también es posible identificar distintos estudios longitudinales (Heaven & Ciarrochi, 2007; McCullough, Enders, Brion, & Jain, 2005; McCullough, Tsang, & Brion, 2003; Wink, Ciciolla, Dillon, & Tracy, 2007).

Además, siguiendo las recomendaciones de Saroglou, Pichon, Trompette, Verschueren y Dernelle (2005), diferentes autores han empleado la perspectiva del otro observador (Dillon, Wink, & Fay, 2003; Saroglou & Fiasse, 2003; Wink et al., 2007) y diseños experimentales (Ahmed, 2009; Ahmed & Salas, 2013).

En una temprana revisión del estado del arte, Koenig (1998) identifica distintos estudios pioneros en explorar las relaciones entre la religiosidad, la espiritualidad y las diferencias individuales.

Entre los primeros estudios se encuentra el trabajo de Costa, McCrae y Norris (1981), quienes concluyen que la religiosidad se encuentra inversamente asociada al neuroticismo y positivamente a la introversión.

Posteriormente, Koenig et al., (1990) encuentran que la religiosidad promueve un aumento en la estabilidad emocional a lo largo del tiempo. En un estudio meta-analítico que incluye 71 muestras de diferentes continentes como Asia, Europa y Oceanía, Saroglou (2010) identifica tres categorías generales a partir de las cuales es posible clasificar la multiplicidad de escalas empleadas para evaluar los constructos numinosos que estos estudios relacionan al FFM:

(1) la religiosidad, que define como el conjunto de creencias y prácticas vinculadas a lo trascendente legitimadas por un grupo o tradición,

(2) la espiritualidad, que caracteriza como el vínculo con una realidad trascendente, pero fuera del marco de las instituciones o tradiciones formales y

(3) el fundamentalismo religioso, que identifica a aquellas personas que presentan una visión dogmática de creencias, prácticas y actitudes ligadas a lo trascendente.

De acuerdo con el autor, las tres variables reflejan correlaciones significativas con responsabilidad y amabilidad, espiritualidad particularmente se asocia a extroversión, mientras que apertura se relaciona positivamente con espiritualidad, pero negativamente con fundamentalismo y no se asocia a la religiosidad.

En una revisión reciente, Koenig et al., (2012) han relevado numerosos estudios publicados desde el año 2000 que evalúan las relaciones entre los constructos numinosos y los rasgos de la personalidad.

Los autores identifican 54 estudios que encuentran asociaciones entre la religiosidad y el neuroticismo, de los cuales el 24% reportan una relación negativa, el 9% una relación positiva y el 61% ninguna asociación, 50 estudios que la asocian a la extraversión, de los cuales el 38% encuentra una relación positiva, el 6% una negativa y el 54% ninguna relación, 30 estudios que la asocian a la responsabilidad, de los cuales el 63% encuentra una relación positiva, 3% negativa y el 30% ninguna relación, 30 estudios que la asocian a la amabilidad, de los cuales el 87% se asocia positivamente, 0% negativamente y 7% ninguna asociación, y 26 estudios que la vinculan a la apertura, de los cuales el 42% encuentra una relación positiva, el 12% una relación negativa y 38% ninguna relación.

Siguiendo a Saroglou (2002), los autores sostienen que si se controla espiritualidad, es probable que la relación tienda a ser negativa (r= -.14).

Espiritualidad, religiosidad y apertura

Diferentes autores han explorado el vínculo entre la espiritualidad, la religiosidad y la apertura a la experiencia a partir de la teoría de los rasgos (Duriez et al., 2004; Saucier & Skrzypińska, 2006; Village, 2011). En líneas generales, la espiritualidad ha sido asociada a la mayoría de las facetas de la apertura (García & Saroglou, 2008; Koenig et al., 2012; Saroglou & Fiasse, 2003).

Еще

Список литературы Religiosidad y espiritualidad en el marco del modelo de los cinco factores de la personalidad

  • Aghababaei, N. (2012). Religious, honest and humble: Looking for the religious person within the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(7), 880–883. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.07.005
  • Aghababaei, N. (2013). Between you and God, where is the general factor of personality? Exploring personality-religion relationships in a Muslim context. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(2), 196–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.02.021
  • Aguilar-Vafaie, M. E., & Moghanloo, M. (2008). Domain and facet personality correlates of religiosity among Iranian college students. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 11(5), 461–483. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670701539114
  • Ahles, J. J., Mezulis, A. H., & Hudson, M. R. (2016). Religious coping as a moderator of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 8(3), 228–234. https://doi.org/10.1037/rel0000039
  • Ahmed, A. M. (2009). Are Religious People More Prosocial? A Quasi-Experimental Study with Madrasah Pupils in a Rural Community in India. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48(2), 368–374. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2009.01452.x
  • Ahmed, A. M., & Salas, O. (2013). Religious Context and Prosociality: An Experimental Study from Valparaíso, Chile. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 52(3), 627–637. https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12045
  • Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(4), 432–443. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0021212
  • Aquino, K., & Reed, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1423–1440. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.83.6.1423
  • Argyle, M., & Beit-Hallahmi, ‎Benjamin. (1975). The social psychology of religion. Oxford: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1975-29429-000
  • Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2014). Personality and Religiousness. In V. Saroglou (Ed.), Religion, personality, and social behavior (pp. 31–46). New York: Psychology Press.
  • Azarbaijani, M. (2003). Development of a religious orientation scale based on Islam. Iran: Olive.
  • Batson, C. D. (1976). Religion as Prosocial: Agent or Double Agent? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 15(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.2307/1384312
  • Batson, C. D., Denton, D. M., & Vollmecke, J. T. (2008). Quest Religion, Anti-Fundamentalism, and Limited Versus Universal Compassion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(1), 135–145. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00397.x
  • Batson, C. D., Eidelman, S. H., Higley, S. L., & Russell, S. A. (2001). “And Who Is My Neighbor?” II: Quest Religion as a Source of Universal Compassion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/0021-8294.00036
  • Batson, C. D., Floyd, R. B., Meyer, J. M., & Winner, A. L. (1999). “And Who Is My Neighbor?:” Intrinsic Religion as a Source of Universal Compassion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38(4), 445. https://doi.org/10.2307/1387605
  • Baumeister, R. F., & Exline, J. (1999). Virtue, Personality, and Social Relations: Self-Control as the Moral Muscle. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 1165–1194. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00086
  • Benet-Martínez, V., & John, O. P. (1998). Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: multitrait multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(3), 729–50. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9781409
  • Braganza, D., & Piedmont, R. L. (2015). The Impact of the Core Transformation Process on Spirituality, Symptom Experience, and Psychological Maturity in a Mixed Age Sample in India: A Pilot Study. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(3), 888–902. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-015-0049-y
  • Brown, I. T., Chen, T., Gehlert, N. C., & Piedmont, R. L. (2013). Age and gender effects on the Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES) scale: A cross-sectional analysis. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 5(2), 90–98. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030137
  • Browne, M., Pennycook, G., Goodwin, B., & McHenry, M. (2014). Reflective minds and open hearts: Cognitive style and personality predict religiosity and spiritual thinking in a community sample. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44(7), 736–742. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2059
  • Bushman, B. J., Ridge, R. D., Das, E., Key, C. W., & Busath, G. L. (2007). When God Sanctions Killing: Effect of Scriptural Violence on Aggression. Psychological Science, 18(3), 204–207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01873.x
  • Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Bermúdez, J., Maslach, C., & Ruch, W. (2000). Multivariate Methods for the Comparison of Factor Structures in Cross-Cultural Research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(4), 437–464. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022100031004002
  • Carpenter, T. P., & Marshall, M. A. (2009). An Examination of Religious Priming and Intrinsic Religious Motivation in the Moral Hypocrisy Paradigm. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48(2), 386–393. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2009.01454.x
  • Chang, E. C., Jilani, Z., Yu, T., Fowler, E. E., Lin, J., Webb, J. R., & Hirsch, J. K. (2015). Fundamental dimensions of personality underlying spirituality: Further evidence for the construct validity of the RiTE measure of spirituality. Personality and Individual Differences, 75(1), 175–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.027
  • Chen, T. P. (2011). A cross-cultural psychometric evaluation of the Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments Scale in Mainland China. University of Maryland.
  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992a). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 4(1), 5–13. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.5
  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992b). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. Odessa: PAR.
  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1999). Inventario de Personalidad Neo Revisado (NEO PI-R). Inventario Neo Reducido de Cinco Factores (NEO-FFI). Manual Profesional. Madrid: TEA Ediciones.
  • Costa, P. T., McCrae, R. R., & Dye, D. A. (1991). Facet Scales for Agreeableness and Conscientiousness: A Revision of the NEO Personality Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(9), 887–898. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(91)90177-D
  • Costa, P. T., McCrae, R. R., & Norris, A. H. (1981). Personal adjustment to aging: longitudinal prediction from neuroticism and extraversion. Journal of Gerontology, 36(1), 78–85. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj/36.1.78
  • Cota-McKinley, A. L., Woody, W. D., & Bell, P. A. (2001). Vengeance: Effects of gender, age, and religious background. Aggressive Behavior, 27(5), 343–350. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.1019
  • Dillon, M., Wink, P., & Fay, K. (2003). Is Spirituality Detrimental to Generativity? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(3), 427–442. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5906.00192
  • Dirilen-Gümüş, Ö. (2010). The effect of religiosity on political ideology via value types and personality traits: A comparison between Turkey and USA. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 12–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.042
  • Donahue, M. J. (1985). Intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness: Review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(2), 400–419. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.48.2.400
  • Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2006). The mini-IPIP scales: tiny-yet-effective measures of the Big Five factors of personality. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 192–203. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.18.2.192
  • Duck, R. J., & Hunsberger, B. (1999). Religious Orientation and Prejudice: The Role of Religious Proscription, Right-Wing. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 9(3), 157–179. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327582ijpr0903_1
  • Duriez, B. (2004). Are religious people nicer people? Taking a closer look at the religion–empathy relationship. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 7(3), 249–254. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670310001606450
  • Duriez, B., Fontaine, J. R. J., Hutsebaut, D., & Leuven, K. U. (2000). A further elaboration of the post-critical belief scale: Evidence for the existence of four different approaches to religion in flanders-belgium. Psychologica Belgica, 40(1967), 153–181.
  • Duriez, B., & Hutsebaut, D. (1996). A slow and easy introduction to the Post-Critical Belief. In D. M. Wulff (Ed.), Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Duriez, B., & Soenens, B. (2006). Personality, identity styles, and religiosity: An integrative study among late and middle adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 29(1), 119–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.11.007
  • Duriez, B., Soenens, B., & Beyers, W. (2004). Personality, Identity Styles, and Religiosity: An Integrative Study Among Late Adolescents in Flanders (Belgium). Journal of Personality, 72(5), 877–910. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00284.x
  • Emmons, R. A. (1988). Religion and Personality. In H. G. Koenig (Ed.), Handbook of Religion and Mental Health (pp. 63–74). San Diego: Elsevier.
  • Emmons, R. A. (1999a). Religion in the Psychology of Personality: An Introduction. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 874–888. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00076
  • Emmons, R. A. (1999b). The Psychology of Ultimate Concerns: Motivation and Spirituality in Personality. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Feagin, J. R. (1964). Prejudice and Relegious Types: A Focused Study of Southern Fundamentalists. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 4(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.2307/1385200
  • Fontaine, J. R. J., Luyten, P., & Corveleyn, J. (2000). Tell Me What You Believe and I’ll Tell You What You Want: Empirical Evidence for Discriminating Value Patterns of Five Types of Religiosity. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10(2), 65–84. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327582IJPR1002_01
  • Francis, L. J., & Bourke, R. (2003). Personality and religion: Applying cattell’s model among secondary school pupils. Current Psychology, 22(2), 125–137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-003-1003-9
  • Francis, L. J., & Pearson, P. R. (1985). Extraversion and Religiosity. The Journal of Social Psychology, 125(2), 269–270. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1985.9922882
  • Francis, L. J., Pearson, P. R., & Kay, W. K. (1983). Are introverts still more religious? Personality and Individual Differences, 4(2), 211–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(83)90024-7
  • Fredrickson, B. (2002). How does religion benefit health and well-being? Are positive emotions active ingredients? Psychological Inquiry, 13(3), 209–213. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1449332
  • Gajdosova, B., Orosova, O., Janovska, A., & Benka, J. (2014). Personality Factors, Autonomy, Religion and Risk Behaviours of First Year Slovak University Students. European Health Psychologist, 17, 726–731.
  • García, A. M., & Saroglou, V. (2008). Believing literally versus symbolically : values and personality correlates among Spanish students. Journal of Beliefs & Values: Studies in Religion & Education, 29(3), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/13617670802465755
  • Gebauer, J. E., Bleidorn, W., Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., Lamb, M. E., & Potter, J. (2016). Big Five personality and religiosity: Agreeableness and conscientiousness constitute the basis of religiosity only in religious cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(2).
  • Gebauer, J. E., Paulhus, D. L., & Neberich, W. (2013). Big Two Personality and Religiosity Across Cultures: Communals as Religious Conformists and Agentics as Religious Contrarians. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(1), 21–30. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550612442553
  • Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Shamohammadi, K., & Cunningham, C. J. (2009). Post-critical beliefs in iran: predicting religious and psychological functioning. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 20, 151–194.
  • Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. Personality Psychology in Europe. https://doi.org/citeulike-article-id:1856566
  • Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 504–528. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1
  • Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., & Pyszczynski, T. (1997). Terror Management Theory of Self-Esteem and Cultural Worldviews: Empirical Assessments and Conceptual Refinements. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 61–139). San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60016-7
  • Greer, T., Berman, M., Varan, V., Bobrycki, L., & Watson, S. (2005). We Are a Religious People; We Are a Vengeful People. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 44(1), 45–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00264.x
  • Halama, P., Martos, T., & Adamovová, L. (2010). Religiosity and Well-Being in Slovak and Hungarian Student Samples: the Role of Personality Traits. Studia Psychologica, 52(2), 111–115.
  • Heaven, P. C. L., & Ciarrochi, J. (2007). Personality and religious values among adolescents: A three-wave longitudinal analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 98(4), 681–694. https://doi.org/10.1348/000712607X187777
  • Henningsgaard, J. M., & Arnau, R. C. (2008). Relationships between religiosity, spirituality, and personality: A multivariate analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 703–708. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.07.004
  • Hill, P. C. (2012). Measurement Assessment and Issues in the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology of Religion and Spirituality (pp. 48–75). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Hoekstra, H. A., Ormel, J., & De Fruyt, F. (1996). NEO Personality Questionnaires NEO-PI-R, NEO-FFI, Manual. Lisse: Swet & Zeitlinger BV.
  • Hunsberger, B. (1995). Religion and Prejudice: The Role of Religious Fundamentalism, Quest, and Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Journal of Social Issues, 51(2), 113–129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1995.tb01326.x
  • James, A., & Wells, A. (2003). Religion and mental health: towards a cognitive-behavioural framework. British Journal of Health Psychology, 8(3), 359–376. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910703322370905
  • Joiner, T., Perez, M., & Walker, R. (2002). Playing devil’s advocate: Why not conclude that the relation of religiosity to mental health reduces to mundane mediators? Psychological Inquiry, 13(3), 214–216. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1449334
  • Jonathan, E. (2008). The Influence of Religious Fundamentalism, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Christian Orthodoxy on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Attitudes Toward Homosexuals. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 18(4), 316–329. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508610802229262
  • Jordan, K. D., Masters, K. S., Hooker, S. a., Ruiz, J. M., & Smith, T. W. (2014). An Interpersonal Approach to Religiousness and Spirituality: Implications for Health and Well-Being. Journal of Personality, 82(5), 418–431. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12072
  • Kaldestad, E. (1995). The empirical relationships of the religious orientations to personality. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 36(1), 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.1995.tb00971.x
  • Kaldestad, E. (1996). The empirical relationships between standardized measures of religiosity and personality/mental health. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 37(2), 205–220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.1996.tb00652.x
  • Kapuscinski, A. N., & Masters, K. S. (2010). The current status of measures of spirituality: A critical review of scale development. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2(4), 191–205. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020498
  • Katsogianni, I. V., & Kleftaras, G. (2015). Spirituality, Meaning in Life, and Depressive Symptomatology in Drug Addiction. International Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Society, 5(2), 11–24.
  • Kirkpatrick, L. a. (1999). Toward an Evolutionary Psychology of Religion and Personality. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 921–952. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00078
  • Koenig, H. G. (1998). Handbook of religion and mental health. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=504GYYj1O3kC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=Handbook+of+Religion+and+Mental+Health&ots=ZUayUs0sgo&sig=Dgp_uDCHNmi5gqfVCSihHR0KDb0
  • Koenig, H. G., King, D., & Carson, V. B. (2012). Handbook of religion and health. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Koenig, H. G., Meador, K. G., & Parkerson, G. (1997). Religion Index for Psychiatric Research: A 5-Item Measure for Use in Health Outcome Studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, (154), 885–86.
  • Koenig, H. G., Siegler, I. C., Meador, K. G., & George, L. K. (1990). Religious coping and personality in later life. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 5(2), 123–131. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.930050210
  • Krause, N. (2006). Gratitude Toward God, Stress, and Health in Late Life. Research on Aging, 28(2), 163–183. https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027505284048
  • Leach, M. M., Berman, M. E., & Eubanks, L. (2008). Religious Activities, Religious Orientation, and Aggressive Behavior. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(2), 311–319. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00409.x
  • Leak, G. K., & Fish, S. B. (1999). Development and Initial Validation of a Measure of Religious Maturity. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 9(2), 83–103. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327582ijpr0902_1
  • Lewis, C. A. (1999). An empirical contribution to the psychology of religion : examination of issues in measurement, life-satisfaction and personality theory. University of Ulster.
  • Lodi-Smith, J., & Roberts, B. W. (2007). Social Investment and Personality: A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship of Personality Traits to Investment in Work, Family, Religion, and Volunteerism. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11(1), 68–86. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868306294590
  • MacDonald, D. A. (2000). Spirituality: description, measurement, and relation to the five factor model of personality. Journal of Personality, 68(1), 153–197. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.t01-1-00094
  • Maclean, A. M., Walker, L. J., & Matsuba, M. K. (2004). Transcendence and the Moral Self: Identity Integration, Religion, and Moral Life. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 43(3), 429–437. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2004.00245.x
  • Maltby, J., & Lewis, C. A. (1997). The reliability and validity of a short scale of attitude towards Christianity among USA, English, Republic of Ireland, and Northern Ireland adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(5), 649–654. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00244-9
  • Maltby, J., Lewis, C. A., Freeman, A., Day, L., Cruise, S. M., & Breslin, M. J. (2010). Religion and health : the application of a cognitive-behavioural framework. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13(7), 749–759. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670802596930
  • McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1999). A five-factor theory of personality. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 139–53). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2008). Empirical and theoretical status of the five-factor model of personality traits. In G. J. Boyle, G. Mathews, & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment (pp. 273–295). London: Sage Publications.
  • McCullough, M. E., Enders, C. K., Brion, S. L., & Jain, A. R. (2005). The Varieties of Religious Development in Adulthood: A Longitudinal Investigation of Religion and Rational Choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(1), 78–89. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.89.1.78
  • McCullough, M. E., Tsang, J.-A., & Brion, S. (2003). Personality Traits in Adolescence as Predictors of Religiousness in Early Adulthood: Findings from the Terman Longitudinal Study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(8), 980–991. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167203253210
  • McCullough, M. E., & Willoughby, B. L. B. (2009). Religion, self-regulation, and self-control: Associations, explanations, and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135(1), 69–93. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014213
  • McCullough, M. E., & Worthington, E. L. (1999). Religion and the Forgiving Personality. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 1141–1164. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00085
  • Mirsaleh, Y., Rezai, H., Kivi, S., & Ghorbani, R. (2010). The role of religiosity, coping strategies, self-efficacy and personality dimensions in the prediction of Iranian undergraduate rehabilitation interns’ satisfaction with their clinical experience. Clinical Rehabilitation, 24(12), 1136–1143. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215510375907
  • Moberg, D. O. (2002). Assessing and measuring spirituality: Confronting dilemmas of universal and particular evaluative criteria. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 47–60. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013877201375
  • Ostendorf, F., & Angleitner, A. (2004). NEO-Persönlichkeitsinventar nach Costa und McCrae, revidierte Fassung (NEO-PI-R). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Ozer, D. J., & Reise, S. P. (1994). Personality Assessment. Annual Review of Psychology, 45(1), 357–388. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.45.020194.002041
  • Piedmont, R. L. (1999a). Does Spirituality Represent the Sixth Factor of Personality? Spiritual Transcendence and the Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality, 67(6), 985–1013. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00080
  • Piedmont, R. L. (1999b). Strategies for using the five-factor model of personality in religious research. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 27(4), 338–350. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2000-13311-006
  • Piedmont, R. L. (2004a). Assessment of spirituality and religious sentiments, technical manual (1st ed.). Timonium, Maryland: Author.
  • Piedmont, R. L. (2004b). The Logoplex as a paradigm for understanding spiritual transcendence. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 15(1), 263–284. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.18.3.213
  • Piedmont, R. L. (2005). The Role of Personality in Understanding Religious and Spiritual Constructs. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality (1st ed., pp. 253–273). London: The Guilford Press.
  • Piedmont, R. L. (2009). The Contribution of Religiousness and Spirituality to Subjective Wellbeing and Satisfaction with Life. In M. Souza, L. J. Francis, J. O’Higgins-Norman, & D. Scott (Eds.), International Handbook of Education for Spirituality, Care and Wellbeing (Vol. 3, pp. 89–105). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9018-9
  • Piedmont, R. L. (2012). Overview and Development of Measure of Numinous Constructs: The Assessment of Spirituality and Religious Sentiments (ASPIRES) Scale. In L. J. Miller (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Psychology and Spirituality (pp. 104–122). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Piedmont, R. L., Ciarrocchi, J. W., Dy-Liacco, G. S., & Williams, J. E. G. (2009). The empirical and conceptual value of the spiritual transcendence and religious involvement scales for personality research. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 1(3), 162–179. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015883
  • Piedmont, R. L., & Leach, M. M. (2002). Cross-Cultural Generalizability of the Spiritual Transcendence Scale in India: Spirituality as a Universal Aspect of Human Experience. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(12), 1888–1901. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764202045012011
  • Piedmont, R. L., Werdel, M. B., & Fernando, M. (2009). The utility of the assessment of spirituality and religious sentiments (ASPIRES) scale with Christians and Buddhists in Sri Lanka. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 20(1), 131–143.
  • Piedmont, R. L., & Wilkins, T. A. (2013). Spirituality, religiousness, and personality: Theoretical foundations and empirical applications. In K. I. Pargament, J. J. Exline, & J. W. Jones (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Vol 1): Context, theory, and research. (Vol. 1, pp. 173–186). Washington: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14045-009
  • Piedmont, R. L., Wilkins, T. A., & Hollowitz, J. (2013). The relevance of spiritual transcendence in a consumer economy : The dollars and sense of it. Journal of Social Research & Policy, 4(2), 2–19.
  • Robbins, M., & Francis, L. J. (2000). Religion, Personality, and Well-being: The Relationship Between Church Attendance and Purpose in Life. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 9(2), 223–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/10656210009484908
  • Roberts, B. W., & Robins, R. W. (2000). Broad Dispositions, Broad Aspirations: The Intersection of Personality Traits and Major Life Goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(10), 1284–1296. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167200262009
  • Rose, E. D., & Exline, J. (2012). Personality, Spirituality, and Religion. In L. J. Miller (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Psychology and Spirituality (pp. 85–104). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Rowatt, W., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2002). Two Dimensions of Attachment to God and Their Relation to Affect, Religiosity, and Personality Constructs. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(4), 637–651. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5906.00143
  • Salmanpour, H., & Issazadegan, A. (2012). Religiosity Orientations and Personality Traits with Death Obsession. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 4(1), 150–157. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v4n1p150
  • Salsman, J. M., Brown, T. L., Brechting, E. H., & Carlson, C. R. (2005). The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: the mediating role of optimism and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(4), 522–535. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271563
  • Sanua, V. D. (1969). Religion, mental health, and personality: a review of empirical studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 125(9), 1203–1213.
  • Saroglou, V. (2002). Religion and the five factors of personality: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(1), 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00233-6
  • Saroglou, V. (2010). Religiousness as a cultural adaptation of basic traits: a five-factor model perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(1), 108–125. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868309352322
  • Saroglou, V., & Fiasse, L. (2003). Birth order, personality, and religion: a study among young adults from a three-sibling family. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(1), 19–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00137-X
  • Saroglou, V., & Jaspard, J.-M. (2000). Personality and religion: From Eysenck’s Taxonomy To The Five-Factor Model. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 23(1), 41–70.
  • Saroglou, V., & Muñoz García, A. (2008). Individual Differences in Religion and Spirituality: An Issue of Personality Traits and/or Values. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(1), 83–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00393.x
  • Saroglou, V., Pichon, I., Trompette, L., Verschueren, M., & Dernelle, R. (2005). Prosocial Behavior and Religion: New Evidence Based on Projective Measures and Peer Ratings. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 44(3), 323–348. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00289.x
  • Saucier, G., & Skrzypińska, K. (2006). Spiritual But Not Religious? Evidence for Two Independent Dispositions. Journal of Personality, 74(5), 1257–1292. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00409.x
  • Schnell, T. (2012). Spirituality with and without Religion—Differential Relationships with Personality. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 34(1), 33–61. https://doi.org/10.1163/157361212X644495
  • Schwartz, S. H., & Huismans, S. (1995). Value Priorities and Religiosity in Four Western Religions. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(2), 88. https://doi.org/10.2307/2787148
  • Shafer, A. B. (1999). Brief Bipolar Markers for the Five Factor Model of Personality. Psychological Reports, (84), 1173–1179.
  • Simkin, H., & Azzollini, S. (2015). Personalidad, Autoestima y Espiritualidad-Religiosidad desde el Modelo y la Teoría de los Cinco Factores. PSIENCIA: Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencia Psicológica, 7(2), 339–361. https://doi.org/10.5872/psiencia/7.2.22
  • Streyffeler, L. L., & McNally, R. J. (1998). Fundamentalists and liberals: personality characteristics of Protestant Christians. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(4), 579–580. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00189-X
  • Taylor, A., & MacDonald, D. A. (1999). Religion and the five factor model of personality: An exploratory investigation using a Canadian university sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 27(6), 1243–1259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00068-9
  • Tiliopoulos, N., Bikker, A. P., Coxon, A. P. M., & Hawkin, P. K. (2007). The means and ends of religiosity: A fresh look at Gordon Allport’s religious orientation dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(8), 1609–1620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.034
  • Trapnell, P. D., & Paulhus, D. L. (2012). Agentic and Communal Values : Their Scope and Measurement. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94(1), 39–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2011.627968
  • Village, A. (2011). Outgroup prejudice, personality, and religiosity: Disentangling a complex web of relationships among adolescents in the UK. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 3(4), 269–284. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022966
  • Walborn, F. (2014). Religion in Personality Theory. London: Elsevier.
  • Webb, J. R., Toussaint, L., & Dula, C. S. (2014). Ritualistic, Theistic, and Existential Spirituality: Initial Psychometric Qualities of the RiTE Measure of Spirituality. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(4), 972–985. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-013-9697-y
  • Whitley, B. E. (2009). Religiosity and Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men: A Meta-Analysis. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 19(1), 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508610802471104
  • Willoughby, M. T., Cadigan, R. J., Burchinal, M., & Skinner, D. (2008). An evaluation of the psychometric properties and criterion validity of the religious social support scale. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(1), 147–159. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00398.x
  • Wink, P., Ciciolla, L., Dillon, M., & Tracy, A. (2007). Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Personality, 75(5), 1051–70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00466.x
Еще
Статья научная