Application of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in construction. Рубрика в журнале - Nanotechnologies in Construction: A Scientific Internet-Journal

Публикации в рубрике (9): Application of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in construction
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Development of heavy metal-based nanostructured complex technology for use in building mortar

Development of heavy metal-based nanostructured complex technology for use in building mortar

Vladimir M. Ilin, Evgeni V. Boev, Aigul' A. Islamutdinova, El'mira K. Aminova

Статья научная

Introduction. Heavy metals (copper, zinc, nickel, lead, chromium, cobalt, cadmium) get into constructional materials with natural and man-made raw materials. The chemical and mineralogical composition of large-tonnage wastes from the petrochemical industry is perfect for constructional materials production. Heavy metals in constructional compositions provide high strength and frost resistance. Currently, nanostructured metal-containing complexes are used in the production of mortars. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the reliable binding of heavy metals into structurally stable compounds to avoid their emission and secondary environmental pollution. The steadily growing volumes of sludge reservoirs with high concentrations of heavy metals such as chromium (Cr +6), copper (+2), lead (+2), iron (+2), and Fe (+3) cause particular interest to researchers. Qualified extraction of the listed metals and binding them as nanocomponents in the composition of the complexing agent will ensure the creation of a nanostructural composition in the recipe for the preparation of mortar for various purposes. Methods and materials. Sorption methods are the main way to isolate heavy metals. The paper proposes a method for the production of alkyleneaminopolycarboxylic acids and studies its ability to form nanometallic complex compounds for the extraction of heavy metals. Results and discussions. In order to bind metal nanoparticles in oil sludge, the efficiency of the produced compounds, carboxymethyl derivatives of hexamine, was investigated. Optimum synthesis conditions were selected and the structure of the obtained complexing agents was proved by infrared and ultraviolet radiation methods as well as by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance. Conclusion. The resulting nanostructured additions have binding properties that provide high adhesion of the heavy metal to the organic substrate and mortar components, which makes it possible to provide a strong composition that maintains operational properties that meet technical requirements.

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Effective use of dry foaming agents in the manufacture of foam gypsum thermal insulation nanocompositions

Effective use of dry foaming agents in the manufacture of foam gypsum thermal insulation nanocompositions

Ruslan I. Shigapov, Dmitry A. Sinitsin, Rauf M. Khalikov, Elena A. Solovyeva, Igor V. Nedoseko

Статья научная

Introduction. The elaboration of foamed eco-friendly gypsum nanocomposites with low specific gravity, high thermal insulation, operational and technical and economic characteristics remains an urgent task. Controlled hardening of gypsum foam nanoassemblers using dry foaming agents is a promising direction in the technology of production of heat-insulating building materials. Methods and materials. The production of a foam gypsum composition was carried out in an ejector-turbulent mixer by mixing a gypsum nanobinder with functional foaming nanoadditives. Building gypsum G5 BII was used as a binder in the work; porization of gypsum compositions was carried out using an adsorbed foaming agent PBNS. Results. The transformation of liquid-phase foaming agents into solid-phase ones by binding water allows the production of gypsum foam compositions from dry mixtures, which gives high dosing accuracy, a good degree of homogenization of components and stable characteristics of foamed gypsum nanocompositions. In production conditions, a one-storey small-sized pavilion was built using a pilot 3D printer AMT S1160, in which vertical enclosing structures are filled with foamed heat-insulating nanostructured foam gypsum. Monolithic foam gypsum nanomaterial with a density of 300–400 kg/m3 was used for insulation and sound insulation of attic floors during the overhaul of the historic building of the Veterans Hospital in Ufa. Discussion. The elaboration of technology for obtaining foam gypsum from dry mixtures is based on the advantage of manufacturing and using thermal insulation nanocompositions, which allows for significant punctuality of dosing and stable characteristics of foam gypsum building materials. Surfactants have a significant effect on the kinetics of the structure formation of the foam gypsum nanocomposition and slow down the coalescence of air bubbles. Conclusions. Nanoporous foam gypsum concrete, obtained as a result of controlled hardening, with a density of 400 kg/m3 has a thermal conductivity of 0.12 W/(m•ºС) and a compressive strength of 1.4 MPa. The compressive strength of foamed foam gypsum using a dry foaming agent on sorbents is 17% higher than the strength of a heat-insulating nanomaterial prepared using traditional technology.

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High-strength wall ceramics based on phosphorus slag and bentonite clay

High-strength wall ceramics based on phosphorus slag and bentonite clay

Suleimenov Zh.T., Sagyndykov A.A., Moldamuratov Zh.N., Bayaliyeva G.M., Alimbayeva Zh.B.

Статья научная

Introduction. One of the promising ways to get high-strength ceramics is the method of semi-dry pressing of the "coarsely dispersed component – finely ground binder" formula. This method suggests using crushed industrial waste as the core, and finely ground nanostructured fusible clay as the binder material. Methods and materials. In the research, bentonite clay of the Darbazinsky deposit of the Turkestan region was used as plastic material, and dense crystallized phosphorus slag which is a waste of phosphorus production was used as a non-plastic coarse material. The study of the prescription factors’ influence on the basic physical and mechanical properties of ceramic wall materials was carried out by the simplex method characterized as lattice planning of experiments. The nanostructure of the phosphorus slag and bentonite clay formula was studied by the electron microscopic analysis method. Results. The binder content in the amount of 25% guarantees the density of the packages, while the sintering effect becomes sufficient and the strength of the samples is 27.1 MPa. If the amount of binder increases from 25% to 40%, the sintering effect continues to grow and the strength of the samples reaches 54.3 MPa. Discussion. The results show that the most active sintering effect and the dense structures forming in coarse-grained formulas with high-calcium phosphorus slag occur at 40–60% binder content. The presence of flux around slag grains in an amount of less than 30% contributes to obtaining less dense samples, with a binder content of 40%, a density increase is observed, which corresponds to the mixed ceramic structures modeling. Conclusion. To get high-strength ceramic bricks, the content of coarsely dispersed components in the form of phosphorus slag with a fraction of less than 1.25 mm should amount to 60–70%, finely ground phosphorus slag should be 5–10%, and bentonite clay is to be 20–30%. Optimum technological indicators are: calcination temperature 1050–1100oC, pressing pressure 20–25 MPa, press powder moisture content 7–8%.

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Method of obtaining calcium silicate for construction

Method of obtaining calcium silicate for construction

Evgeny V. Boev, Aigul A. Islamutdinova, Elmira K. Aminova

Статья научная

Introduction. Calcium silicate is one of the well-known building materials. Its structure determines the ability of such nanostructured additives to form a secondary structure – a fractal (volumetrical) network with which cement grains interact. The addition of nanomodifying additives to improve the technology of cement production will reduce the space dimension in which molecules are sorbed on the cement grain, and, accordingly, increase the rate and efficiency of its blocking. Methods and materials. The paper proposes a method for obtaining calcium silicate from soda ash production waste. The sol-gel method for the synthesis of individual nanomodifiers in the silicate form will improve the technology for producing concretes by forming a solid phase state of the modified structure of a cement stone. In the production of soda ash, the land plots (sludge accumulators) are allocated for the collection of production waste (distiller liquid). In this regard, the acute problem is a disposition of industry waste, because the area allocated for sludge accumulators is limited. Results and discussions. The study revealed that the addition of certain components allows us not only to reduce the required firing temperature, but also to affect the nanostructure of the resulting product. The range of values of the content of additives per 5 g of calcium silicate: С – 0.2÷0.4; S – 0.3÷0.5; ZnO – 0.1÷0.3; P2O5 – 0.3÷0.5; NH2CONH2 – 0.3÷0.3. According to the obtained matrix of conditions, 16 samples of substances were prepared. Nanomodification of cement stone leads to its hardening in the early stages of structure formation. Conclusion. The addition of hydroperite to calcium silicate significantly increases the hardness of the final product; when coal, sulfur, zinc oxide and phosphorus pentoxide are added as components, the hardness and structure of the compound changes. Thus, the use of a nanostructured cement additive based on calcium silicate obtained by qualified processing of the main waste that is part of the distiller liquid - calcium oxide, will improve the quality of concrete by improving the technology of cement production

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Methodological tools for university transfer of high-demand nanotechnologies to the regional building industry

Methodological tools for university transfer of high-demand nanotechnologies to the regional building industry

Shayakhmetov U.Sh., Larkina A.A., Khalikov R.M., Sinitsin D.A., Nedoseko I.V.

Статья научная

Introduction. The development of methodological monitoring tools to implement building nanomaterials into production is an integral element of designing a mechanism for effective management of the development of business structures. University entrepreneurship and research and educational centers in the ecosystem trend are considered as central actors in the process of creating tools for university transfer of nanobinders for construction purposes. Methods and materials. The process of forming digital competencies among students and teachers in the process of commercialization of scientific developments of a construction university (institute, faculty, department) should be considered as the result of fractal interactions. The development of the innovative ecosystem of the university is achieved by the effective implementation of the process of transferring the results of intellectual activity for the creation of gypsum and ceramic nanocomposites, which are in demand by the regional construction industry. Results. The intellectual and technological potential of universities that train bachelor’s and master’s students for the construction industry determines the prospects for the successful development of the industry in an innovative society. Accelerated promotion of investment developments, requested nanotechnologies of universities, provides universities with additional extrabudgetary funding. On the example of the development of technology for producing small-piece wall and partition products based on nanostructured gypsum binders, they were tested in experimental industrial conditions. Discussion. Effective methodological tools for the transfer of nanotechnological university engineering to the construction industry are: the creation of basic departments at enterprises and the successful functioning of research and educational centers, the participation of employers in educational and industrial practice, etc. From the point of view of laborious commercialization and transfer of scientific developments, the effective way from the idea to the widespread introduction of high-tech products is the real application of the intellectual potential of the teaching staff of the university, institute, departments. Conclusions. The engineering of methodological tools for reliable monitoring of the attractiveness of the regional business ecosystem for the generation and development of transfer processes of popular nanomaterials is an integral element of designing a mechanism for effective management of business structures in construction. Due to the formation of the innovative ecosystem of the university, an effective implementation of the process of commercialization of the results of intellectual activity in the field of nanotechnology, which are in demand by the construction industry of the region, is achieved.

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Modification of portland cement with nanoadditives

Modification of portland cement with nanoadditives

Farit A. Agzamov, Aleksander Y. Grigoryev

Статья научная

Introduction. Portland cement slurries (suspensions) used for well cementing have high water-cement ratios (0.45–0.6). They also contain a minimum amount of inert fillers, must have zero water separation and controlled hardening with a minimum time between the start and end of setting. Literature review. Most of the scientific work on the use of nano-additives in binder systems relates to the construction industry. Nanosilicon, nanotitanium, nanocarbonate, nanoclays, carbon nanofibers, etc. were widely used as modifiers of cement systems, which showed an increase in the strength characteristics of the resulting concretes. Literature review showed that there is a very wide range of concentrations of nanoadditives in cement systems from 0.001 to 10.0%. An increase in the strength of cement with high concentrations of additives in a number of publications is explained by a decrease in its capillary porosity due to clogging of the pore space. However, nanoadditives should not play the role of microfillers in the hardened stone. They should work in cement slurry at the stage of cement hydration and cement structure formation at concentrations less than 1.0%. Results and Discussion. The paper presents the results of experimental studies of the rheological properties and early strength of stone based on Portland cement with additives (0.01%) of nanocarbonate and nanoiron. The role of nanoadditives is to increase the rate of cement hydration by reducing the activation energy, and accelerating the dissolution of the solid phase in the liquid. Nanoadditives can be a “substrate” on which two-dimensional nuclei of a new phase are formed. The probability of the appearance of two-dimensional nuclei on the substrate is much higher than for the formation of three-dimensional nuclei of a new phase in the bulk of the solution. Conclusion. The results show an ambiguous effect of additives on the tested parameters, which indicates the need to optimize the amount of additives. One of the reasons for the ambiguity of the results may be high water-cement ratios, which reduce the likelihood of the formation of “constrained” conditions in cement slurries. At the same time, the effects of accelerated cement hydration are “levelled” and the number of contacts between hydration products is reduced.

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Nanocoatings in modern construction

Nanocoatings in modern construction

Falikman V.R.

Статья научная

The review analyzes the state of the nanocoating market, shows main types of nanocoatings, as well as drivers and barriers to their development and application. Modern progress in the field of nanotechnology allows us to attribute nanocoating to high performance materials, the structure and properties of which can be “designed” according to specific functional criteria and the level of environmental impact. They present unique remarkable characteristics compared to conventional coating materials in construction industry. The government’s grandiose plans to commission new housing and road infrastructure, as well as ambitious projects to develop the Arctic and ensure national security, should lead to the growth of the industry as a whole, as well as to an increase in demand for more efficient, innovative building materials, including nanocoatings and nanopaints.

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Obtaining the retainer for waterproofing road bitumens

Obtaining the retainer for waterproofing road bitumens

Evgeniy V. Boev, Aigul A. Islamutdinova, Elmira K. Aminova

Статья научная

Bitumen is a mixture of hydrocarbons and hetero-organic compounds. It is one of the most popular building materials today. Due to the growing consumption of bitumen for various purposes, the requirements for its quality characteristics are increasing, which prompts a comprehensive study of the physical and mechanical properties and methods of its modification. Currently, various additives are used, from inorganic materials to organic binders, including waste chemical, petrochemical and household industries. These additives create a nanodispersed structure inside the bitumen, which provides a change in the physical and mechanical properties in the required direction. Methods and materials. The work proposes a method for obtaining a fixer for waterproofing road bitumen based on nitrogen-containing organic compounds. The goal of research is to study the effect of the additive-derivative of triethylenediaminedicyan, which leads to the formation of a nanodispersed structure of bitumen of the “sol-gel” type, the quality indicators of which will meet the requirements of the new standard GOST 33133-2014 “Viscous road oil bitumen”. The object of the study is the bitumen production unit of workshop No. 14 of Gazprom neftekhimSalavat LLC, designed to produce commercial bitumen: oil road grades CB 90/130 in accordance with GOST 22245-90, used in road, civil and industrial construction as a binder and waterproofing material. Results and discussion. In the course of the study, the nature of the interaction and the effect of the modifier on the properties of bitumen, which ensure the production of nanostructured bitumen of the “sol-gel” type, were revealed. As a result of the study, a comparative assessment of the effect of the fixer on the properties of waterproofing bitumen revealed a significant improvement in physical and mechanical properties in comparison with bitumen grade CB 90/130. Conclusion. The obtained compound based on triethylenediaminedicyancan can be used as a fixing additive to road bitumen

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X-ray spectral methods for measuring the degree of ordering of carbon nanoparticles

X-ray spectral methods for measuring the degree of ordering of carbon nanoparticles

Letenko D.G., Pukharenko Yu.V., Aubakirova I.U.

Статья научная

Methods for the quantitative assessment of the content of ordered structures in the products of synthesis of fulleroid materials based on the spectra of characteristic X-ray radiation and X-ray diffraction are considered. The introduction shows that the use of carbon fulleroid materials (fullerenes, fullerenols and their compounds, fulleroid nanoparticles) as modifiers of the properties of various structural materials and plasticizers of concrete mixes is currently one of the most rapidly developing areas in the field of nanotechnology in construction. Methods and materials. In this work, the following analytical control methods were used: scanning microscopy, local X-ray spectral analysis and X-ray diffractometry. The products of synthesis of fulleroid materials were studied: samples of fullerene-containing soot collected at different distances from the arc synthesis zone. Results. Raster images of the synthesis products with various magnifications are shown, as well as the X-ray fluorescence spectra and the elemental composition of the synthesis products. The X-ray phase analysis of the synthesis products was carried out. It is shown that the analysis of the amorphous component of the composition, which is one of the products of the yield, will make it possible to control the synthesis at each stage and under various conditions of its implementation. Analysis of a nonlinear dynamic system. To construct an attractor of a dynamic system, the correlation dimension, the dimension of the phase space and the fractal dimension of the process under study were calculated. The correlation dimension and the dimension of the phase space were calculated using the Takens’ method. The fractal dimension is calculated using the Hurst exponent. Conclusions. To study the dynamics of chemical reactions occurring during arc synthesis, the system of differential Rössler attractor is used. A solution to this system is obtained – Rössler attractor – an attracting set of trajectories in the phase space, which is identical in appearance to the process under study, which makes it possible to estimate, relying on attractors characteristic of each sample (synthesis material), at what stage the synthesis process occurs, and by making differential model, to organize the control to improve the quality of output products. Thus, the possibility of evaluating the efficiency of the synthesis of fulleroids used for the modification of building materials is demonstrated.

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