# Grain crops extrusion process mathematical model at a non-isothermal flow of their melt up to the temperature of the Maillard reaction start

Автор: Afanasiev V.A., Frolova L.N., Sizikov K.A., Ostrikov A.N., Zobova S.N.

Статья в выпуске: 1 (87), 2021 года.

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The equations of motion, the equation of continuity, the equation of energy (heat balance), the rheological equation were chosen to describe the non-isothermal flow of the cereals melt in the extruder as the initial equations. The following assumptions were made to solve the model: the flow of a moving viscous medium is assumed to be laminar and steady; the forces of inertia and gravity are so small compared to the forces of friction and pressure that they can be neglected; a viscous medium (melt) is an incompressible liquid characterized by constant thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity; the change in thermal conductivity in the longitudinal direction was neglected due to the fact that convective heat transfer in the flow direction is higher than the heat transfer by thermal conductivity; heat transfer in the direction perpendicular to the flow of the melt occurs only due to thermal conductivity. The numerical finite difference method was used to solve a system of equations taking into account convective heat transfer. Its essence of use lies in the fact that the considered area (extruder channel) is divided into calculated cells using a grid. The grid consisted of rectangular cells with a constant step between nodes, which exactly lie on the boundaries of the integration region. In this case, the differential equations were transformed into difference equations by replacing the derivatives at a point with finite differences along the cell boundaries. The mathematical model of non-isothermal melt flow in the extruder channel was obtained as a result of the solution. To solve a mathematical model of the process of grain crops extrusion with a non-isothermal flow of their melts, a program in the algorithmic language C ++ was compiled. A non-isothermal mathematical model of the process of extrusion of grain crops at temperatures of the beginning of the Maillard reaction, i.e., up to 120-125 ?, was obtained. It allows us to identify the nature of the temperature change along the length of the extruder. Comparative analysis of the results of the numerical solution and experimental data showed good convergence: the standard deviation did not exceed 12.7%.

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Mathematical model, non-isothermal flow, melt, grain crops, extrusion, compound feed, protected protein, cattle