Impact of internal and external factors in buiding energy consumption under tropical climatic condition

Автор: Perera Hewage Ruchira, Jayasinghe Rohantha Rukshan, Halwatura Rangika Umesh

Журнал: Строительство уникальных зданий и сооружений @unistroy

Статья в выпуске: 4 (97), 2021 года.

Бесплатный доступ

The most commonly used building materials were reviewed concerning their impact on cooling load and architectural interventions. The continuing increase of energy consumption of air conditioning systems suggests a more profound examination of their tropical climatic environment and the impact on the building and an application of passive cooling systems. Furthermore, in this study, mathematical expressions were developed to support decision-makers to select their optimal envelope enhancement strategies for buildings under tropical climatic conditions. Moreover, an economic analysis was also carried out to help prospective users with their energy-saving ideas. Out of selected materials, glass was found to be the most influential material, followed by timber and wall. The results obtained in this study reveals that improvement of material and their impact on energy conservation, especially double glass window over the plain glass window per 100 m2 area, contributes to reducing the overall 22% monthly electricity bill and their AC capacity. Moreover, this study further reveals that improvement of the wall conserves a significant amount of energy; Improved wall over one layer brick wall per 100 m2 area contributes to reducing overall energy by 12 % of their AC capacity and monthly electricity bill. The primary object of this research is to study the impact of internal & external factors in building energy consumption under tropical climatic conditions. There are few specific objectives identified to fulfil the main objective. Firstly, the study tries to identify the impact of building cooling load for different building orientations with the most commonly used building materials and their optimisation. Then develop a mathematical equation and graphs for cooling load and their impact of most common use building materials under tropical climatic conditions. Furthermore, this research identifies the direct impact of the capacity of the air conditioning unit and their electricity consumption for RSCL. Finally, find out the payback period for different improvements of exterior walls through economic analysis.


Room sensible cooling load, room latent cooling load, energy conservation, heating ventilating and air-conditioning, building materials, building environment

Короткий адрес:

IDR: 143173819   |   DOI: 10.4123/CUBS.97.5

Список литературы Impact of internal and external factors in buiding energy consumption under tropical climatic condition

  • Li, X., Shen, C., Yu, C.W.F. Building energy efficiency: Passive technology or active technology? Indoor and Built Environment. 2017. 26(6). Pp. 729–732. DOI:10.1177/1420326X17719157.
  • Prabatha, T., Karunathilake, H., Perera, K., Hewage, K., Sadiq, R. Energy performance improvement in tropical buildings: Envelope thermal performance analysis2019.
  • Nandapala, K., Chandra, M.S., Halwatura, R.U. A study on the feasibility of a new roof slab insulation system in tropical climatic conditions. Energy and Buildings. 2020. 208. Pp. 109653. DOI:10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.109653. URL:
  • Magaji, M., Sa’adiya Ilyasu, M. Analysing the performance of passive cooling system in Buildings: designing natural solution to summer cooling loads and Architectural Interventions. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). 2017. 6(10). Pp. 272–280.
  • Halwatura, R.U. Effect of Turf Roof Slabs on Indoor Thermal Performance in Tropical Climates: A Life Cycle Cost Approach. Journal of Construction Engineering. 2013. 2013. Pp. 1–10. DOI:10.1155/2013/845158.
  • Chandra, M., Nandapala, K., Priyadarshana, G., Halwatura, R. Developing a durable thermally insulated roof slab system using bamboo insulation panels. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 2019. DOI:10.1007/s40095-019-0308-x.
  • Mahlia, T.M.I., Taufiq, B.N., Ismail, Masjuki, H.H. Correlation between thermal conductivity and the thickness of selected insulation materials for building wall. Energy and Buildings. 2007. 39(2). Pp. 182–187. DOI:10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.06.002.
  • Jayalath, A., Gunawardhana, T. Towards sustainable constructions: Trends in Sri Lankan construction industry. International Conference on Real Estate Management and Valuation 2017. 2017. (October). Pp. 137–143. URL:
  • Kottek, M., Grieser, J., Beck, C., Rudolf, B., Rubel, F. World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 2006. 15(3). Pp. 259–263. DOI:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
  • Trewin, B. The climates of the Tropics, and how they are changing. Bureau of meterology. 2014. Pp. 39–51. URL: file:///R:/LITERATURE/Aimee/Trewin_ChangingClimatesTropics.pdf.
  • Edward G Pita (Author). Air Conditioning Principles And Systems: An Energy Approach. 4 th editi. PEARSON INDIA, 2018. 429 p. ISBN:935286672X.
  • Mikulić, D., Milovanović, B., Gabrijel, I. Analysis of thermal properties of cement paste during setting and hardening. RILEM Bookseries. 2012. 6. Pp. 465–471. DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-0723-8_66.
  • Al-Hadhrami, L.M., Ahmad, A. Assessment of thermal performance of different types of masonry bricks used in Saudi Arabia. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2009. 29(5–6). Pp. 1123–1130. DOI:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.06.003. URL:
  • Lertwattanaruk, P., Choksiriwanna, J. The physical and thermal properties of adobe brick containing bagasse for earth construction. Built. 2011. 1(1). Pp. 53–62. DOI:10.14456/built.2011.5. URL:
  • Barrios, M., Van Sciver, S.W. Thermal conductivity of rigid foam insulations for aerospace vehicles. Cryogenics. 2013. 55–56. Pp. 12–19. DOI:10.1016/j.cryogenics.2012.11.004. URL:
  • Gorantla, K.K., Shaik, S., Puttaranga Settee, A.B.T. Simulation of various wall and window glass material for energy efficient building design. Key Engineering Materials. 2016. 692(March 2017). Pp. 9–16. DOI:10.4028/
  • Forest Products Laboratory (Author). Wood Handbook, Wood as an Engineering Material. Centannial 2013. 508 p. ISBN:1484859707.
  • Rebolledo, P., Cloutier, A., Yemele, M.C. Effect of density and fiber size on porosity and thermal conductivity of fiberboard mats. Fibers. 2018. 6(4). Pp. 1–17. DOI:10.3390/fib6040081.
  • Andersson, B., Place, W., Kammerud, R., Scofield, M.P. The impact of building orientation on residential heating and cooling. Energy and Buildings. 1985. 8(3). Pp. 205–224. DOI:10.1016/0378-7788(85)90005-2.
  • Kamel, E., Memari, A.M. Automated Building Energy Modeling and Assessment Tool (ABEMAT). Energy. 2018. 147. Pp. 15–24. DOI:10.1016/ URL:
  • Nandapala, K., Halwatura, R. Design of a durable roof slab insulation system for tropical climatic conditions. Cogent Engineering. 2016. 3(1). DOI:10.1080/23311916.2016.1196526. URL:
  • Halwatura, R.U., Jayasinghe, M.T.R. Strategies for improved micro-climates in high-density residential developments in tropical climates. Energy for Sustainable Development. 2007. 11(4). Pp. 54–65. DOI:10.1016/S0973-0826(08)60410-X.
  • Muhaisen, A.S., Dabboor, H.R. Studying the Impact of Orientation, Size, and Glass Material of Windows on Heating and Cooling Energy Demand of the Gaza Strip Buildings. Journal of Architecture and Planning. 2015. 27(1). Pp. 1–15.
  • Judkoff, R., Wortman, D., O’Doherty, B., Burch, J. A methodology for validating building energy analysis simulations. NREL Technical report 550-42059. 2008. (April). Pp. 1–192. URL: and Building Simulation Research/A Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations.pdf.
  • Franssen, M.L. The Impact of Green Roofs on Urban Heat Island Effect. 2015.
  • Ratnayake, R. Traditional Small Retail Shops vs. Emerging Supermarkets and Shopping Malls in a Sri Lankan City. Bhumi, The Planning Research Journal. 2015. 4(1). Pp. 44. DOI:10.4038/bhumi.v4i1.4.
  • Lucas, R., Slema, M., Wickramarachchi, N. A basis for a natural electricity tariff : a case study of the domestic sector A Basis for a Natural Electricity Tariff Case Study : Domestic sector. 2018. (July).
  • Udawattha, C., Arooz, F.R., Halwatura, R.U. Energy content of walling materials- A comparison of Mud-Concrete Blocks, Bricks, Cabook and Cement Blocks on tropics. 7th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment. 2016. 7(December). Pp. 30–42. URL:
  • Energy efficiency buiding code of SriLanka. (2020).
  • Edmonds, I.R., Greenup, P.J. Daylighting in the tropics. Solar Energy. 2002. 73(2). Pp. 111–121. DOI:10.1016/S0038-092X(02)00039-7.
Статья научная