Functional analysis of metal production tools of the late bronze age (case study of the Kartamysh archaeological microregion)

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The paper reports on the studies of metalworking tools from the Kartamysh archaeological microregion. Archaeological sources demonstrate that both the complete production cycle (extraction, ore processing, metallurgy and metalworking) and the incomplete production cycle could be used by various communities. Metal goods, various types of tools, ancient pits were examined. The latter are represented by a variety of traces such as changes of the natural structure of the geological depositions and the landscape. The research includes systematization of the artifacts made from rocks, bone and ceramics from the Kartamysh archaeological microregion in Donbass (Berezhnovka-Maevka Timber-grave culture of the Late Bronze Age). The collection consisting of 1091 items was subjected to the structural/raw material, technological, functional and contextual analyses. The paper publishes a series of metal production tools such as mining tools (mattocks, hacks, hammers - Fig. 1: 4-11), ore processing tools (pestles/grinding stones, mortars/grinding slabs), metalworking instruments (moulds, hammers, anvils, abrasives, a scraper) (Fig. 2: 4-19). Bone tools for gravitational ore processing were singled out (Fig. 3: 1-10). Traces on the artifacts were compared with the traces obtained during experiments on dry ore processing, gravitation and metalworking.


Late bronze age, berezhnovka-maevka timber-grave culture, bone tools, stone tools, metal production, functional analysis, experiment, kartamysh

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IDR: 143171175

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