Esoteric tourism as a niche type of tourism: opportunities and ways of human self-improvement

Автор: Mariam R. Arpentieva, Petr V. Menshikov, Natalya V. Kuznetsova, Irina V. Gorelova

Журнал: Сервис в России и за рубежом @service-rusjournal

Рубрика: Теоретические аспекты экономики и туристского сервиса

Статья в выпуске: 5 (92), 2020 года.

Бесплатный доступ

Modern tourism is actively expanding the scope of its activities, including through the ever-increasing diversification and specialization of tourist trips and other products. Niche tour-ism is beginning to become an increasingly important sphere of tourism, annually giving a huge increase even in those areas that were traditionally considered massive. But there are also areas that have never been and can never be massive. These include esoteric tourism. Of course, there is an old tradition of pilgrimages and religious tourism, however, the concept of "esoteric" implies secret, sacred knowledge and skills that are passed on to some, a select few or, in the case of tourists, seeking them. The condition for obtaining this knowledge and skills is self-improvement and self-realization. As a result, esoteric tourism acts as a classic niche type of tourism. Its pur-pose as a type of tourism of special interests is self-improvement and self-realization as a motive of tourist activity. The purpose of the work is to study the state and prospects for the develop-ment of esoteric tourism as a special type of niche tourism, study the specifics of esoteric tourism as a type of niche tourism and identify the prospects for its development in Russia and the world. This type of tourism is intended for tourists with a special type of needs: in the context of A. Maslow's hierarchical model of needs, tourists who demand routes and other tourist offers of this type belong to a group of people who require a special quality of impressions about the world, and, most importantly, about themselves... The tourist travel of such tourists is the inte-gration of health-recreational (healing), cultural and educational (philosophical and esoteric) and extreme mystical (spiritual, magical, shamanistic, etc.) travel. Self-improvement and self-realization as a motive of tourist activity represent the highest level of motivation for tourist activity and, therefore, one way or another, should be understood as elite tourism, along with extreme tourism. This type of tourism has great development prospects precisely as a niche type of tourism, since it involves a person's work with oneself: the organization of such work requires significant efforts on his part and on the part of the organizers of a tourist trip, therefore, not only highly qualified specialists and special tourist destinations are needed, but also flexible, mul-ticomponent routes, allowing to implement special customer requests so that this type of busi-ness remains not only in demand, but also competitive, along with its immanent elitism and other specifics.

Еще

Niche tourism, esoteric tourism, tourism of special interests, destination, self-improvement, self-realization, tourist product

Короткий адрес: https://readera.org/140253770

IDR: 140253770   |   DOI: 10.24411/1995-042X-2020-10501

Список литературы Esoteric tourism as a niche type of tourism: opportunities and ways of human self-improvement

  • Ablaeva, T.M. (2016). Turisty i yogi odnovremenno [Tourists and yogis at the same time]. Turbi-znes [Tourism business], 2, 8 - 12. (In Russ.).
  • Arpentieva, M.R. (2016). Ezotericheskiy turizm [Esoteric tourism]. In: Rudenko, L. G. & Rudenko, Yu. S. (eds.). Uctoychivoye razvitiye sotsial'no-ekonomicheskikh sistem: nauka i praktika [Sus-tainable development of socio-economic systems: science and practice]: III International Scien-tific and Practical Conference. Nov. 22, 2016. Moscow: Moscow S.Yu. Witte University Publ., 70-83. (In Russ.).
  • Arpentieva, M. R. (2020). Ekskursovod-provodnik v trevel-psikhoterapii (psikhoterapevtich-eskiom turizme) [Tour guide-guide in travel psychotherapy (psychotherapeutic tourism)]. In: Afanasiev, O. E. (ed.). Innovatsii v ekskursionnoy rabote: kontseptsii, tekhnologii, praktika [Inno-vations in excursion work: concepts, technologies, practice]: A monograph. Part 1. Moscow, Ber-lin: Direct-Media Publ., 318-351. (In Russ.).
  • Arpentieva, M. R. (2017). Obrazovatel'nyy i religioznyy turizm [Educational and religious tour-ism]. In: Shulgina, O. V., & Voronova, T. S. (eds.) Obrazovatel'nyy turizm v vuze i shkole [Educa-tional tourism at the university and school]: Materials of the IV Moscow city conference on March 18, 2017. Moscow: MGPU Publishing House, 78–83. (In Russ.).
  • Arshinova, V. V., Tokar, O. V., Kuznetsova, N. V., Arpentieva, M. R., Kirichkova, M. E., & Nova-kov, A. V. (2018). Trevel-psikhoterapiya ili psikhoterapevticheskiy turizm [Travel-psychotherapy or psychotherapeutic tourism]. Servis v Rossii i za rubezhom [Service in Russia and Abroad], 3, 6-24. doi: 10.24411.1995-042X-2018-10301. (In Russ.).
  • Afanasiev, O. E., & Afanasieva, A. V. (2019). Religioznyy turizm kak trend mirovoy i rossiyskoy turindustrii: kontseptual'naya sushchnost' i modeli razvitiya [Religious tourism as a trend in the world and Russian travel industry: conceptual essence and development models]. Sovremen-nyye problemy servisa i turizma [Service and Tourism: Current Challenges], 13(3), 7-27. (In Russ.).
  • Ilyin, D. A. (2015). Ezotericheskiy turizm [Esoteric tourism]. Otdykh, Turizm, Puteshestviya [Rest, Tourism, Travel], 7, 22 - 27. (In Russ.).
  • Korobchenko, A. I., Golubchikov, G. M., & Arpentieva, M. R. (2020). Psikhologo-pedagog-icheskiye vozmozhnosti i ogranicheniya glempinga: turizm kak praktika razvitiya cheloveka [Psy-chological and pedagogical possibilities and limitations of glamping: tourism as a practice of hu-man development]. Fizicheskaya kul'tura. Sport. Turizm. Dvigatel'naya rekreatsiya [Physical cul-ture. Sport. Tourism. Motor recreation], 5(4), 134-140. (In Russ.).
  • Makeev, L. Yu. (2011). Optimal'noe prirodopol'zovanie v turisticheskih celyah [Optimal use of natural resources for tourism purposes]. Moscow: Laboratory of books Publ., 1-97. (In Russ.).
  • Payu, E. (2013). Organizatsiya deyatel'nosti palomnicheskikh tsentrov i turfirm v sfere religi-oznogo turizma [Organization of activities of pilgrim centers and travel agencies in the field of religious tourism]. Kurorty. Servis. Turizm [Resorts. Service. Tourism], 1(18), 119-122. (In Russ.).
  • Petrukhin, S. S. (2019). Osnovnyye napravleniya i osobennosti ezotericheskogo turizma. The main directions and features of esoteric tourism. Integratsiya turizma v ekonomicheskuyu sis-temu regiona: perspektivy i bar'yery [Integration of tourism into the economic system of the re-gion: prospects and barriers]: Materials of the 1st international scientific and practical confer-ence. Oryol, April 25-26. Oryol: I. S. Turgenev Oryol State University Publ., 333-336. (In Russ.).
  • Prizova, E. (2014). Turisticheskiy gid po taynym mestam Ural'skikh gor [A tourist guide to the secret places of the Ural Mountains]. Rossiyskaya gazeta [Russian newspaper], 6, 44-51. (In Russ.).
  • Terentieva, O. L. (2012). Sovremennyye vidy turizma ili kak provesti ocherednoy otpusk [Modern types of tourism or how to spend your next vacation]. Moscow: INFRA – M Publ., 1-40. (In Russ.).
  • Farkhitdinova, O. M. (2009). "Ezotericheskiy turizm": o translyatsiyakh i mutatsiyakh ponyatiya ["Esoteric tourism": about translations and mutations of the concept]. Vestnik Ural'skogo mezhdunarodnogo instituta turizma [Bulletin of the Ural International Institute of Tourism], 281-290. (In Russ.).
  • Fedorova, M. V. (2017). Religioznyy turizm v sovremennom global'nom mire [Religious tourism in the modern global world]. Uspekhi sovremennoy nauki [Advances in modern science], 3(8), 112-116. (In Russ.).
  • Khristov, T. T. (2008). Religioznyy turizm [Religious tourism]. Moscow: Academy Publ. (In Russ.).
  • Sharafutdinov, V. N., Yakovenko, I. M., Pozachenyuk, E. A., & Onishchenko, E. V. (2017). Krym: novyy vektor razvitiya turizma v Rossii [Crimea: a new vector of tourism development in Russia]. Moscow: INFRA-M Publ. (In Russ.).
  • Sharipova, A. S. (2017). State and prospects for the development of esoteric tourism in the Urals. Yekaterinburg: Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University Publ. URL: https://elar.rsvpu.ru/ bitstream/123456789/17942/1/RSVPU_2017_160.pdf (accessed 20.12.2020) (In Russ.).
  • Shaulskiy, V. A. (2013). Ezotericheskiy turizm [Esoteric tourism]. Turbiznes [Travel Business], 9, 58 - 66. (In Russ.).
  • Alaverdov, E. (2020). Global Development of Religious Tourism / E. Alaverdov, M. W. Bari (Eds.). London: IGI Global, 1- 366.
  • Barkun M. (2016). Conspiracy Theories as Stigmatized Knowledge. Diogenes, 1-7.
  • Beaman, L.& Sikka, S. (2016). Constructions of Self and Other in Yoga, Travel, and Tourism: A Journey to Elsewhere. New York and London: Springer International Publishing & Palgrave Mac-millan, 1-124. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-32512-5.
  • Butler, R., Suntikul, W., & et al. (eds.). (2018). Tourism and Religion: Issues and Implications NY: Channel View, 1-320.
  • Chesworth, N. (2006). The role of demographics, psychology and economics in understanding the spiritual dimension of tourism. Tourism – the spiritual dimension: Conference paper. Lincoln-shire: University of Lincoln Press, 1-5.
  • Cohen, E. (2010). Tourism, Leisure and Authenticity, Tourism Recreation Research, 35(1), 67-73, doi: 10.1080/02508281.2010.11081620.
  • Cusack, C. (2020). Invented, Playful and Temporary: European Prehistoric Sacred Spaces in the New World. In: Place, Space and Religious Identity, ACU (Melbourne), 17-18 February, 2020. ACU, Melbourne: Institute for Religion and Critical Inquiry, 1-5.
  • Dawson, A. (2006). East is east, except when it’s west: The easternisation thesis and thewestern habitus. Journal of Religion & Society, 8, 1-12.
  • Devereux, C. & Carnegie, E. (2006). Pilgrimage: Journeying beyond self. Tourism – the spiritual dimension: Conference paper. Lincolnshire: University of Lincoln Press, 1-5.
  • Di Giovine, M. A., Choe, J., & et al. (eds). (2020). Pilgrimage beyond the Officially Sacred: Un-derstanding the Geographies of Religion and Spirituality in Sacred Travel NY & London: Routledge, 1-206.
  • Dillette, A., Douglas, A., & Andrzejewski, C. (2018). Yoga tourism – a catalyst for transfor-mation? Annals of Leisure Research, 22, 1-20. doi: 10.1080/11745398.2018.1459195.
  • Dowson, R., Yaqub, J., & Raj, R. (2019). Spiritual and Religious Tourism: Motivations and Man-agement. Oxon: CABI.
  • Fahey, Fr. (2002). Pilgrims or Tourists? The Furrow, 53 (4), 213-218.
  • Först, J. (2013). Abschied von der «Patchworkreligiosität»?: von der pastoralen Kompetenz, mo-derne religiöse Orientierungen existentiell zu entschlüsseln und theologisch zu deuten. Bibel und Liturgie, 86, 134-136.
  • Graburn, N. (1989). Tourism as the Sacred Journey. In: Smith, V. (ed.). Hosts and guests. The Anthropology of Tourism. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 21-36.
  • Grayling, A. (2003). What is good: The search for the best way to live. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Handayani, B. (2019). Special Interest Tourism in Southeast Asia: Emerging Research and Oppor-tunities (Advances in Hospitality, Tourism, and the Services Industry). NY: IGI Global.
  • Haq, F., & Jackson, J. (2006). The recognition of marketing of spiritual tourism as a significant new area in leisure travel. Tourism – the spiritual dimension: Conference paper. Lincolnshire: University of Lincoln Press.
  • Hay, D., & Socha, P. M. (2005). Science looks at spirituality: Spirituality as a natural phenome-non: Bringing biological and psychological perspectives together. Zygon, 40(3), 589-612.
  • Huang, K., Pearce, Ph., Wu, M.-Y. & Wang, X.-Zh. (2019). Tourists and Buddhist heritage sites: An integrative analysis of visitors’ experience and happiness through positive psychology con-structs. Tourist Studies, 19(4), 549-568. doi: 10.1177/1468797619850107.
  • Johnson, J. (2018). An Awakening Walk: 500 Miles to Self-love and Acceptance on the Camino De Santiago. London: Luminare Press, LLC, 1-176.
  • Kinsley, D. (1995). Ecology and religion: Ecological spirituality in cross-cultural perspective. Pren-tice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs.
  • Kögler, I. (2010). Patchworkreligion, Theodiversität und eigener Gott: nicht nur eine kommu-nikative Herausforderung. Theologisch-praktische Quartalschrift, 158/1, 1-11.
  • Korstanje, M. E., Raj, R., & Griffin, K. (2018). Risk and Safety Challenges for Religious Tourism and Events. Oxon: CABI.
  • Lester, M. (2019). Sacred Journeys: Your Guide to the World's Most Transformative Spaces, Places, and Sites. NY: Adams Media.
  • Liutikas, D. (2020). Pilgrims: Values and Identities. Oxon: CABI.
  • Maslow, A. (2019). Motivation and Personality. NY: Harper, Deli: Prabhat Prakashan.
  • Menshikov, P. V., Kuznetsova, N. V., Korobchenko, A. I., Golubchikov, G. M., & Arpentieva, M. R. (2020). Psychological and pedagogical aspects of glamping: tourism as a practice for personal development. Service and Tourism: Current Challenges, 14(2), 38-49. doi: 10.24411/1995-0411-2020-10204.
  • McKercher, B. (2002). Towards a classification of cultural tourists. The International Journal of Tourism Research, 4(1), 29.
  • Parsons, H., Mackenzie, S. H., & Filep, S. (2019). Facilitating self-development: how tour guides broker spiritual tourist experiences. Tourism Recreation Research, 44(2), 141-152, doi: 10.1080/02508281.2019.1582159.
  • Rogers, C. J. (2007). Secular Spiritual Tourism. Presentation talk. In: International Institute for Peace through tourism (IIPT) Conference. Kampala, Uganda: CQUniversity.
  • Lowry, L. L. (ed.). (2017). The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Travel and Tourism. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc Sage.
  • Santayana, G. (2017). The Philosophy of Travel. In: Santayana, G. The Birth of Reason and Other Essays. NY: Columbia University Press, 5-18.
  • Seligman, M. (2010/2012). Flourish: Positive Psychology and Positive Interventions (The Tanner Lectures on Human Values). Michigan: University of Michigan, Free Press.
  • Senn, C. F. (2002). Journeying as religious education: The shaman, the hero, the pilgrim, and the Labyrinth walker. Religious Education, 97(2), 124-140.
  • Seraphin, H., Sheeran, P., & Pilato, M. (2018). Over-tourism and the fall of Venice as a destina-tion. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 9, 374–376. doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2018. 01.011
  • Shinde, K. A., Olsen, D. H., & et al. (2020). Religious Tourism and the Environment. Oxon: CABI.
  • Smith, V. (1992). Introduction: the quest in guest. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 1-17.
  • Van Bühren, R., Cantoni, L., & De Ascaniis, S. (eds.). (2018). Special issue on “Tourism, Religious Identity and Cultural Heritage. Church, Communication and Culture, 3, 195–418.
  • Vidal-Casellas, D., Aulet, S., & Crous-Costa, N. (2019). Tourism, Pilgrimage and Intercultural Di-alogue: Interpreting Sacred Stories. Oxon: CABI.
  • West, B. (2005). Independent travel and civil religious pilgrimage: backpackers at Gallipoli. In: Down the road: Exploring backpacker and independent travel. Perth: API Network.
  • Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K., Cole, B., Rye, M. S., Butter, E. M., Belavich, T. G., Hipp, K. M., Scott, A. B., & Kadar, J. L. (1997). Religion and spirituality: Unfuzzying the fuzzy. Journal for the scientific study of religion, 76(4), 549-564.
Еще
Статья научная