Адъювантный и другие эффекты вакцины БЦЖ и ее влияние на эпидемиологию новой коронавирусной болезни COVID-19

Автор: Ивашкевич Я.В., Козачевская Л.Ю., Петяева А.В., Чурилов Л.П.

Журнал: Juvenis scientia @jscientia

Рубрика: Обзорные статьи

Статья в выпуске: 4 т.6, 2020 года.

Бесплатный доступ

Живая вакцина БЦЖ, вызывая комплексный ответ как врожденного, так и клеточного/гуморального адаптивного иммунитета, служит биологическим адъювантом. Она выступает триггером «тренированной» реакции иммунной системы, характеризующейся активацией моноцитов, макрофагов, естественных киллеров, а также лимфоидных клеток врожденных популяций. Это способствует скорейшей активации неантигенспецифических защитных программ организма в борьбе с рядом вирусных, грибковых, протозойных инфекций и неоплазией. Одной из таких инфекций может быть COVID-19. Патогенез развития острой интерстициальной пневмонии/респираторного дистресс-синдрома, вызванных COVID-19, характеризуется запуском избыточного системного действия медиаторов воспаления, в частности - цитокинов, при нарушении его фокальных барьеров. Гамма-интерферон, вырабатываемый лимфоцитами после вакцинации БЦЖ, модулирует активность ряда интерлейкинов, что, в свою очередь, может способствовать менее тяжелому течению COVID-19 за счет снижения активности ИЛ-12 и ИЛ-18-зависимых реакций. Между возбудителями микобактериозов и COVID-19 существует антигенный перекрест из-за гомологии белков. В отличие от многих адъювантов, неоднозначно влияние БЦЖ на разные аутоиммунные заболевания (провокация одних и протективное действие при других), как и на риск возникновения лимфом (БЦЖ его снижает, тогда как многие адъюванты повышают). Это, видимо, связано с назначением БЦЖ в очень ранний период, при незрелой иммунной системе и отражает симбионтный характер взаимодействия штамма БЦЖ и организма хозяина. Приведены по странам данные о связи исторической практики применения вакцинации БЦЖ и текущей заболеваемости новой коронавирусной инфекцией и смертности от нее. Рассмотрены в историческом ключе медико-социальные причины разной национальной политики органов здравоохранения в отношении применения вакцины БЦЖ.

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Адъювант, аутоиммунитет, вакцинация бцж, острый респираторный дистресс-синдром, перекрестная антигенная специфичность, тренированный иммунитет, коронавирус, коронавирусная болезнь, цитокины

Короткий адрес: https://readera.org/14117988

IDR: 14117988

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